“Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf”: Discovering and Reuniting a Series

By Tim Wagner

It all began so simply: two unidentified 400-foot, 16mm prints. Thus began my adventure…

For the past year-and-a-half, as part of Indiana University’s Media Digitization & Preservation Initiative (MDPI) phase 2 (film digitization), I have been performing Best Copy work on Encyclopaedia Britannica short films. This work involves comparing multiple copies of 16mm film prints, of hundreds of titles, and selecting the best copies for digitization. As an assistant film archivist at Indiana University Libraries Moving Image Archive (IULMIA), I perform this work at the Ruth Lilly Auxiliary Library Facility (ALF), where the films are stored.

Inspection of the two unidentified film prints revealed their identity: “major area of speech, CONSONANT: (SH)-4” and “major area of speech, CONSONANT: (SH)-5”. Unusual titles, I thought. Well, the head credits on these 16mm films also revealed a series title, “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf”, presented by the John Tracy Clinic. What had I discovered? Time to check our film database FilmDb.

Frames from the film series “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf.”

Developed within the past couple years, Filmdb is a custom database for the Moving Image Archive created as part of the MDPI project. Initially populated with information imported from spreadsheet inventories, the records typically reflect basic information written on film cans, without the benefit of inspection or cataloging. Based on how films were identified, this can present some confusion. As I inspect films and gather information, I have the opportunity to properly identify them and begin populating/correcting Title Records and Physical Object Records within Filmdb.

A title search on “consonant” in our growing Filmdb database resulted in a close match to one of these prints, “CONSONANT: (SH)-4”, along with a Series Title, “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf”. Interesting. Casting a wider net, I performed a title search on the word “deaf”, revealing a mother lode of results: 41 related Title Records, along with several unrelated titles. Yikes! Among the 41 related records, I discovered two additional prints of this episode, “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf—Major Area of Speech: (Sh)-4” (missing the word “CONSONANT”, and with some different capitalization in the title). These database searches had just revealed four prints of the same episode, listed under three different Title Records, with three different variations on the same title. The shape of things to come!

Within the 41 related Title Records, the database revealed a total of 55 film prints for this series. So, I submitted a vault request for these prints and began their inspection. Little did I know that I had only scratched the surface.

Stacks of film cans of the series “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf.”

Produced by the John Tracy Clinic in 1974, “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf” is a series of 42 films designed to train teachers of the deaf in the difficult art of speech instruction for those who cannot hear. Located in Los Angeles, the John Tracy Clinic was established in 1943 by Louise Treadwell Tracy, wife of actor Spencer Tracy. After Spencer and Louise Tracy’s infant son was diagnosed with a profound hearing loss in 1925, Louise Tracy devoted her time and energy to studying how deaf children could be taught to communicate with the hearing and speaking world. She patiently guided her son, John, into an understanding of language and lip-reading. With her encouragement, he learned to speak.

In 1942, Mrs. Tracy responded to a call for help from other mothers of young deaf children by founding a daycare. Louise Tracy established programs to educate and offer emotional support to parents and their preschool deaf children, free of charge. The program incorporated into the John Tracy Clinic the following year with Walt Disney as one of the first board members alongside Spencer Tracy. Known today as the John Tracy Center and serving over 25,000 families a year, the Center provides parent-centered services locally and globally to young children with hearing loss, offering families hope, guidance, and encouragement. https://www.jtc.org/

Directed by Jan Haag, Film and Television Director for the John Tracy Clinic, the 42-film series was captured via kinescope and produced for the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education. A kinescope is a motion picture film recording of a program from a video monitor (pioneered in the 1940’s as a means to preserve and re-broadcast television programs in an era before videotape). It’s interesting to note that Ms. Haag was also on staff at the American Film Institute, where she served as Director of National Production Programs, Director of the Academy Internship Program, and founder of the AFI’s Directing Workshop for Women, a program in which women, including Joanne Woodward, Margot Kidder, Ellen Burstyn, Maya Angelou, Dyan Cannon, and Cecily Tyson, already accomplished in other aspects of filmmaking, could develop their directing skills.

You can watch the introductory episode to the series here: https://media.dlib.indiana.edu/media_objects/kw52jg21k

Frame grabs from the introductory episode of “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf.”

And here’s a link to other films in the series which have been digitized through the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative:

While inspecting the film prints a month after my initial encounter with this series, I performed a title search in the Filmdb database on “teaching speech”, revealing five additional prints in the series. A week later, based on my inspection of those five prints, I performed a title search on “speech kit”, revealing two more prints. Based on some common text appearing in the Title Records of these seven film prints, I performed a title search on “tracy clinic”, revealing 34 Title Records. 33 of these records encompassed a total of 59 more prints, and one record encompassed another 57 prints. Yikes! So, I submitted two vault requests for a total of 116 prints. I certainly had my work cut out for me.

The following month, a title search on “tracy” revealed two more film prints, and a Series Name search on “teaching speech” revealed twenty more prints of nine episodes of the series. The series without end!

Stacks of film cans of the series “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf.”

So, where did they all come from? Good question! As a very young moving image archive within a 200-year-old university encompassing several campuses across the state, the provenance of collection material is not always clear or evident. The Educational Film Collection at IU was established before World War II as an outreach service of the Indiana University Extension Division. By 1945 it had nearly 500 films that were rented out for low fees to schools, public libraries, and organizations throughout the US. The collection grew to tens of thousands of 16mm films, and the Indiana University Audio-Visual Center became one of the largest education rental services in the country. The Audio-Visual Center was also the exclusive distributor of films produced by National Educational Television (NET), the predecessor to PBS. In 2006 Indiana University ended its rental service, and the collection of about 50,000 reels of 16mm film and 7,000 videos came under the care of the IU Library System.

IUCAT, the Indiana University Library Catalog, has 42 records for the “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf” series, one for each episode, encompassing 59 film prints. The records indicate that the films were gifted to Indiana University Bloomington Libraries from Instruction Support Services, the successor department to the Audio-Visual Center. So where did the rest come from? In 2016, four students processed multiple cartons of Tracy Clinic film prints which had previously been stored off-site. Documentation indicates that the majority of these prints, identified simply as “Tracy Clinic Film“, were part of the Handicapped Learner Materials Distribution Center collection, which was distributed by the Indiana University Audio-Visual Center.

The Handicapped Learner Materials Distribution Center was one of two federal agencies charged with dissemination and distribution of educational materials for the Captioned Films and Telecommunications Branch of the Division of Media Services, U.S. Office of Education, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. The Division of Media Services was responsible for administering contracts and grants for the utilization of media and technology and providing technical and material assistance to handicapped children, teachers, state and local administrators, handicapped persons and organizations engaged in providing quality education and other services to the handicapped.

What began so simply with two unidentified film prints blossomed into the discovery of 200+ prints of a 42-episode series, listed under 86 different Title Records.
• 5 episodes have 2 prints each
• 17 episodes have 3 prints each
• 1 episode has 4 prints
• 5 episodes have 6 prints each
• 8 episodes have 7 prints each
• 4 episodes have 9 prints each
• 2 episodes have 10 prints each

Stacks of film cans of the series “Teaching Speech to the Profoundly Deaf.”

In addition to identifying Best Copy for each of the episodes, the benefits of this work include:
• Identification of 207 prints as part of this series
• Consolidation into 42 correct Title Records
• Population of the Title Records
• Providing intellectual control of this series
The phase 2 work on Indiana University’s Media Digitization & Preservation Initiative is providing, for the first time, intellectual control over all the film collections, and it’s a pleasure to be a part of this important work!

– Tim Wagner, Assistant Film Archivist at Indiana University Libraries Moving Image Archive (IULMIA)


Still from “The Chelsea Girls” (Andy Warhol, 1966)

[Indiana University Media School PhD student Anthony Silvestri was kind enough to write up a blog post about The Chelsea Girls (Andy Warhol, 1996) which will be playing at the IU Libraries Screening Room at Tuesday, January 22 at 7:00 PM. Click here to reserve your seat: https://libraries.indiana.edu/chelsea-girls-underground-cinema-16mm-film-screening-extravaganza. Thanks, Anthony, for writing this up and for programming the film!]

“On The Chelsea Girls”
Anthony Silvestri

In 1966, Andy Warhol released his silver clouds, an art installation consisting of floating silver balloons inflated with air and helium, in New York.

Still from “Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein” (Lane Slate, 1966)

Intended as gesture to bid farewell to his career as a painter, the pop artist would later recount that “it turned out they didn’t float away and we were stuck with them, so I guessed I wasn’t really finished with art.” As with most facets of Warhol’s self-presentation, there’s a certain contradiction to his anecdotal reminiscence. In interviews of the era, such as the educational short Warhol and Lichtenstein (conveniently preserved as part of the Moving Image Archive’s collection), Warhol clearly states he is finished with painting, espousing an interest in his projects on celluloid and newfound relationship with the Velvet Underground. Yet, devotees will attest to the fact that the artist still had a lively oeuvre of non-cinematic visual art after 1966, including such influential works as his screen prints of Mao Zedong and his Flowers series, as well as an imagining of Sigmund Freud.

At the time of the silver clouds’ release, Warhol was notable for pioneering a unique style of filmmaking that preserved the “leftovers” of filmic content through the presentation of entire reels without editing. The resultant early films include such masterworks as Kiss (1963), Eat (1963) Sleep (1963) and, perhaps his most (in)famous silent effort, Empire (1964), which features continuous footage of the Empire State Building shot over a period of eight hours. If the daunting prospects of viewing such works in their entirety dissuaded the mainstream public from engaging with Warhol as a filmmaker on the same level as they would with his work as an artist, the popular accounts accompanying them only further cultivated a mythology in which these were works that could be talked about without viewing. The story goes: when tied to a chair at the filmmaker’s co-op in New York during a screening of one of his films, Warhol found a way to escape the ropes that bound him to his seat, unwilling to submit himself to the viewing experience his films required. In the wake of such anecdotes, it is no surprise that his moving image work is still very rarely screened, and the opportunities to view any of Warhol’s early works in their proper format are increasingly scant outside of large cities or urban spaces with ties to the artist. After all, who needs to watch five hours of John Giorno sleeping to get it?

Yet, the further one delves into his oeuvre, the more astounding the breadth of his experiments become. I, myself, am interested in the artist’s Time Capsules: brown boxes in which Warhol stored ephemera, clothing, gifts, refuse and more, an autobiographical archival collection that was intended as just another branded commodity that could potentially be sold. The durational quality of his work on film, as well as the multitude of screen tests he produced, resonates with these items. The presentation of uncut time in his early films and the improvisational quality of Warhol’s early work could be suggested as a multi-authored archive of the 1960s Underground, preserving the rotating collection of cast members and performers within the Factory, especially as they often abandon traditional narrative structure. As others have noted, the longer the cameras rolled, the more authentic their behavior often became. In fact, there is now a revitalized field of study on Warhol’s moving image work that has been advanced in the last decade: both Douglas Crimp and J.J. Murphy have published monographs re-viewing his important contributions to film history. Just a few years ago, the Warhol Museum and the Museum of Modern Art began a collaborative project to digitize all of Warhol’s films that they be more accessible and widely viewed by a public that has lacked the opportunity to encounter this side of the famed artist’s oeuvre. On January 22nd, we’re excited to present The Chelsea Girls in the Screening Room at the Moving Image Archive on 16mm, preserving the film’s ties to the medium on which it was filmed and giving the community the opportunity to revisit Warhol’s importance as a filmmaker.


Still from “Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein” (Lane Slate, 1966)

The Chelsea Girls was originally released in New York in 1966—the same year that the silver clouds would refuse to float away. The Chelsea Girls would coincide perfectly with this installation as it became an outlier in Warhol’s early filmography: the only commercial success he produced prior to being shot by Valerie Solanas. It builds upon many of the tropes of his work and compiles an amalgam of familiar faces and crew members stretching the expanse of his career, including Paul Morrissey, the director who would eventually lead Warhol out of the avant-garde and into commercial filmmaking for good. The Chelsea Girls picks upon a common trope of Warhol’s early film in which we are asked to consider the space of filmmaking. The physical location of Warhol’s early work is often prominent—locales such as the Factory, the Chelsea Hotel, or the Empire State Building are often made apparent. This emphasis would come at the behest of scenarists like Ronald Tavel when Warhol, weary of a film’s narrative, would point the camera away from the action just as it reached its climactic moment and focus on the space in which the film was shot rather in lieu of a traditional emphasis like story, seemingly referencing the impact of location on film. However, off screen space is equally essential in considering the work of Warhol, often shown in nontraditional settings. One need look no further than the inclusions of work such as Vinyl in Andy Warhol’s Exploding Plastic Inevitable installations. In this setting, the films would run—multiple at the same time—while the Velvet Underground played and lights pulsed through the space, creating an overloaded, multimedia sensory experience in which our traditional notions of the space of cinematic viewing and the purpose of film are questioned.

In The Chelsea Girls, we are promised (or were promised, according to its traditional billing) eight hours of a new Warhol film. However, this time becomes condensed through its spatialization—the actual show runs about half that time. Those that are aware of the film will know that this is because it involves projecting two reels, each an “episode” presenting the life of Warhol’s superstars inside the Chelsea Hotel, simultaneously in what is just one of the filmmaker’s double projection efforts (both The John [1966] and Outer and Inner Space [1966] utilize this technique as well). This fundamentally changes the space of the screen in a way that, as many others have noted, results in a sort of perceptual dissonance for the spectator. You must choose if you are to focus on one reel, the other, or to be overwhelmed attempting to watch both at once. However, with this innovative use of space, Warhol also draws our attention to the off screen or hidden space of our cinematic experience by accentuating the authorship of film through projection-as-performance.

We are not generally attuned to the control that projectionists have over our experience of film, yet since its release Warhol’s The Chelsea Girls has demanded that we think of these skilled technicians as equally important authors. In early screenings, this was accomplished by a laissez-faire approach to the structure of the film. When The Chelsea Girls premiered, projectionists would pick and choose which reels to show when, and screenings would be entirely different from performance to performance as what material was included, what auditory track was heard, and what order the events were shown in continually evolved depending on the technicians’ choices. If we usually think of the content of film as stable and unchanging, The Chelsea Girls has, historically, rebuked this notion through its continual change. As much as Warhol would be responsible for replacing reels, so too would projectionists be responsible for the final product—what audiences saw and heard—in the early days of its run.

Even as the film as become more codified, the unique aspect of split-screen ensures that each screening will be different due to the contingency of projection. Instructions are now given as to what order—but with only an approximate timing for the change of visuals and audio levels. For example, while Reel #7: Mario Sings Two Songs, is being threaded we are allowed to hear the sound of Reel #6: Hanoi Hannah and Guests. Depending how long the projectionist takes to complete this act, one might hear more (or less) than they have in previous screenings. Likewise, approximately twenty minutes into Reel #11, Pope Ondine, the sound switches to the beautiful, final reel of the film, Nico Crying. Whether you hear more, or less, of the Velvet Underground’s soundtrack will be wholly dependent on the timing dictated by our projectionists for the evening.

Still from “The Chelsea Girls” (Andy Warhol, 1966)

This means that, even if you have seen The Chelsea Girls in the past, you have never seen it in like it will be shown in the Moving Image Archive, and, counter to our notions of film as a mechanically reproducible experience, you will never have the opportunity to see this version of the film again. For returning viewers, you will have a different experience and see a different The Chelsea Girls than you have in the past. For new audience members, this is your first exposure to The Chelsea Girls, and no others will match it should you be lucky enough to see it more. This quality of The Chelsea Girls makes seizing the rare opportunities to view the film in cinematic spaces, projected on 16mm, and engaging in repeat viewings all the more important. While you can expect the same events and people to reappear, there will always be one essential difference; for this screening, The Chelsea Girls will be equally constructed in the offscreen space by the projectionists that are controlling our experience of the film off screen: Jamie Thomas and Justin Dennis. They will be the “authors” of our experience of The Chelsea Girls in a way that traditional films rarely recognize.

Especially as we experience movies more and more through DCP and less on celluloid—including, quite possibly, the prospects of a newly digitized version of The Chelsea Girls—issues such as these become an essential region of mediation on what forms our experience of cinema, who is responsible for it, and how the possibility of this unique spatial experience is becoming lost.

For making this complicated screening possible and providing funding, thanks go out to: Joan Hawkins, Greg Waller, and the Cinema and Media Studies program at the Media School as well as Andy Uhrich, Jamie Thomas and the Moving Image Archive for excitedly accepting our request, planning it with us, and making it happen.

Still from “Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein” (Lane Slate, 1966)

Processing the Alan Lewis Camera and Projector Collection

Recently, the IU Libraries Moving Image Archive acquired the collection of Alan Lewis, which includes 174 movie cameras and 46 film projectors.  As the person tasked with taking the initial inventory of the collection, I’ve slowly been building a more complete understanding of the shape and scope of what’s in it. So far, I’ve been doing a basic cleanup for each camera and projector, in addition to some internet research to try and find any manuals or information that may exist out in the world. Over the course of cleaning and inspecting the equipment, I’ve gotten a chance to have first hand experience with some amazing pieces of filmmaking history!

For the projectors, I checked the working condition and cleaned around the film path especially. The projectors are split almost evenly in terms of being able to project 16mm or 8mm (or Dual 8, which indicates ability to project both regular and Super). I found several projectors in working order, and one 8mm projector was even used for Home Movie Day.

A Bell & Howell Filmo 8mm “Master” Projector

For the cameras, I’ve mostly been limiting my cleaning to wiping the bodies down to get the dust off and cleaning the lenses. I’ve found that several of the older models (from the 40s-50s) are actually in great working order, due to being based on analogue winding mechanisms. Many of the later models that relied on batteries seem to have electrical components that have failed, or have corrosion in the battery cases that require more extensive cleaning before they can be tested.

Corroded batteries – a conservation risk with old cameras.

Some cameras still have film in them, and those need to be opened in a “black bag” and the film put into lightproof cans. The archive is planning on sending the films away to be developed, which hopefully reveals some cool footage!

I’ve also been doing a bit of background research for each of the different types of models. Lewis’s collection covers an astonishing range of manufacturers, from Bolex to Kodak to Keystone to Yashica. There are bits of information about years of manufacture and technical specs scattered all over the internet, mostly from other private collectors documenting their own collections, such as this website, or dedicated to one brand, for example The Bolex Collector site. Additionally, Alan Kattelle’s excellent book Home Movies has been an invaluable resource for dating cameras and projectors made by Kodak, Bell & Howell, and Revere. Doing the work of tracking down all the separate pieces of information has been an interesting and fun challenge.

My favorites have been the Bell & Howell Filmo 8mm projectors and cameras, which I think are just so cute and well made! The craftsmanship and design of these little Filmos appeal to me aesthetically, in addition to being sturdy and practical. The models were produced starting from the mid-30’s, and the ones I’ve found have held up to this day.

Cute Filmo 8mm cameras!

Not only do the models I’ve found from this series so far work, but they’re also excellent examples of the type of consumer goods available to the amature filmmaker back in the day. Due to these camera’s affordability and ease of use, they were marketed specifically for making home movies.

It fits in your hand!

I would love to see some of these cameras back in action, and the archive hopes make parts of the collection available for students at the The Media School and the School of Art, Architecture + Design to use to get experience shooting on film, possibly for the first time for many. Other plans for the collection include setting up a multi-projection installation around campus.

– by Lydia Creech

“Stacked with Facts” in the Wells’ Stacks with Gene Shalit

My own memories of Gene Shalit’s movie reviews can be traced back to early mornings before I’d leave for school. The TV would be on in the background and the Today show would transition to the “Critic’s Corner,” where Shalit’s trademark mustache and smirking wit would review the latest blockbuster that week. Every time he used to finish a review my parents would also turn from the TV, look at me quizzically, and exclaim, “I never can tell whether he even likes the movie or not!”

Apparently that sly ambivalent humor carries over into much of Shalit’s oeuvre, since the Moving Image Archive recently discovered Shalit in some of the film and video materials we’d received from the Agency for Instructional Television (AIT). In a previous series of blog posts about the AIT collection, I explained some of the history of these materials  and the many moving image formats that have been processed  as part of a digitization initiative. Recently, a graduate student at Simmons College read these blog posts and alerted us to a collection of AIT 16mm films which were part of a television station’s collection in Vermont which were sent to us to join to the rest of the AIT materials held here. During the processing and inspection of these materials one day, I happened to notice a familiar face in one of the 16mm frames.

But that wasn’t the only detail that looked familiar! Most of AIT’s film collection was transferred to various video formats, which were what the Moving Image Archive received three years ago and were then digitized at Memnon’s digitization facilities over the last two years as part of the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative. Therefore, we were able to watch an already digitized version of “About Trade-Offs,” in which Shalit praises the curriculum design of AIT’s educational programming on economics.

Upon reviewing the clip above, the rest of the Moving Image Archive team believed that those library stacks sure did look an awful lot like the ones at the Wells Library here at Indiana University, which is where our archival work space is located. On the surface it made sense that such a scene could have been shot here, since AIT was based in Bloomington and worked in cooperation with the University audio-visual services. So, we went to investigate.

But even after these initial comparisons no one was able to confirm for sure whether the great movie critic had in fact visited IU. Fortunately, IU’s Bicentennial Archivist Kristin Leaman came to the rescue. Kristin directed our search to a University Archives reference file on Indiana University visitors. The Moving Image Archive staff were able to narrow down the year based on the film’s production and information on the edge of the film print to 1977 and, sure enough, the very first item in the folder for that year was an article in the Daily Herald-Telephone, (what is now the Herald-Times), covering Shalit’s visit to IU and his time spent on an AIT shoot in the Wells library!

The article not only discusses Shalit’s visit and the use of the IU Library to shoot the scene from the film, but also has Shalit pictured with then dean of the libraries Carl Jackson and Frederick Jauch, director of publications for AIT.

The mystery was solved, though new questions arise. What were the circumstances of Shalit’s visit? Did he have any prior relationship with Indiana University? And what of the actual content of his segment of the program? “But now, unfortunately,” Shalit says at point, “many of these books are collecting dust.” Is this to imply that presence of books in libraries was believed to be obsolete?—as early as 1977? It’s clear from the article above that Shalit was a proponent of libraries, but what sort of library of the future was being imagined by AIT and its proponents?

Our initial curiosity with Shalit and the transplantation of his “Critic’s Corner” into the Wells Library raises these and perhaps many more questions about the history of educational moving image materials, libraries, and their evolution over the past half century. What questions does our little scavenger hunt raise for you? We hope that researchers find similar threads to begin their search for answers about these peculiar pasts as they reemerge in the collections at the Indiana University Libraries Moving Image Archive.

– by Saul Kutnicki


There will be a Test – Just Joking! Join us for Social Guidance Sunday’s “Send in the Class Clowns”!

April Fools’ Day is no joke and so in honor of the funniest, wackiest time of year, we bring you the last Social Guidance Sunday of the semester, “Send in the Class Clowns.” We are back at our usual haunt, The Bishop at 8pm on Sunday, April 2nd. Come ready to laugh, to cringe and the absurdity, and – as always – to learn something! (It’s free and 21 and over.)

This coy look can only mean one thing – we have got a lot in store for you this Sunday! (from “You, Irresistible You,” 1975)

This program is special because we have one of IULMIA’s own guest programmers, Courtney Holschuh who not only helped curate the program but also moonlights as a stand-up comedian! Here’s what Courtney has to say about herself: Courtney Holschuh, pronounced “holeshoe”, is a first-year graduate student in the Department of Information and Library Science. An interest in film and archiving brought her to Indiana University to work in the Moving Image Archive. Courtney received her bachelor’s in History from Marshall University in her hometown of Huntington, West Virginia. After an extended break upon completing her undergrad, Courtney’s love for archiving, film, organization, and a “oh my god I’m 30 and not doing anything with my life” brought her to graduate school. Before attending IU, Courtney worked in a public library, made short films, played trombone in a rock band (not a ska band), and did stand-up comedy for attention.

Now compelling your attention, Courtney and local comedian Logan Scott Hendry will be performing some jokes as part of this special program! So make sure to join us for some live comedy as well as classic educational film hilarity.

As this is our final program of the academic year, we have found some comedic gems that may remind you of the good laughs we have shared over the course of this year. For instance, the first two films may have you recalling our Halloween show, full of horror and safety films. We begin with a Public Service Announcement (Ashes of Doom) which may make you think twice about smoking! The second film, from 1948 is a comedic look at preventative care for workplace injuries. Safe Clothing (1948) is a Canadian film, but you wouldn’t know it from the narrator’s accent. It is reassuring to know that the Department of National Health and Welfare and the Department of Labour of the Government of Canada have our best interests at heart.

But maybe you’ll prefer to slip into something more comfortable. In that case, we present The Baggs, a silent film story about a man that catch quite catch a break from some unlikely burlap sacks. But if burlap isn’t your style, how about some creams or moisturizers for those baggy eyes? Maybe you’d be interested in learning about all of the different deodorizers, bronzers, and perfumes for your “strategic zones”? Marshall Efron introduces us to the creams, salves, balms, and sprays that will help him transform into the perfect, irresistible man. You, Irresistible You features few short skits hosted by Marshall Efron, a Danny Devito/Zach Galifinakis-type who puts the pathetic in pathos – making you reconsider that bronzer, that waterbed, maybe even that mindset that you need to be perfect. Welcome to the so-sad-it’s-funny portion of the programming!

You know those days when you find yourself underneath a mattress, getting jumped on by a burlap sack? Yeah, we call them Mondays. (from “The Baggs” 1973)

We have reached our self-help section of the program which means you’re going to need some help with oral communication. Learn from Carol who needs to expand her paper route but won’t be able to do that until she can properly convince her neighbors to subscribe to the paper. Luckily, she’s got local politics working for her, a trusty duck to pop up at the right moment, and the best frenemy a young entrepreneur could ask for! See how she overcomes her obstacles and improves her oral communication skills in What Did You Say? (1983).

While Safe Clothing uncovered the importance of sensible work clothes in a factory, Xerox also takes a vested interest in workplace safety, bringing you slapstick humor with a word of warning in You and Office Safety (1970). According to Xerox, “Accidents don’t happen, they’re caused.”

Poor Susan got a door swung into her while she was carrying a tray of drinks. Her pain is our pleasure when we watch the hilarious high jinx abound in “You and Office Safety” (1970).

To close out this program, we will spend some time with Harlem Globe-Trotter, Meadowlark Lemon (1979). With the help of some funny costumes, a pet gorilla, and a bunch of balls, Lemon teaches us about directions, latitude and longitude lines, and what to call the different parts of the world.


Ashes of Doom (1970, 2 min.)

Safe Clothing (1948, 8 min.)

The Baggs (1973, 12 min.)

You, Irresistible You (1975, 11 min.)

What Did You Say? (1983, 14 min.)

You and Office Safety (1970, 9 min.)

Meadowlark Lemon Presents the World (1979, 17 min.)

~Creatively compiled by Katie Lind

Celebrate a Sweet 16…. Millimeter Film Program!

Ah, those lazy, crazy, halcyon days of teen hood. You may recall the parties, the zits, the glamor, and the gossip. Well, the IU Libraries Moving Image Archive has a sweet treat for you! This month we bring you short films to make you long for your younger days – and films to make you happy you’re no longer a teenager! [Unless you still are a teenager as this is an all ages show!] In this month’s set of Social Guidance Sunday films, teenagers receive some tough love concerning proper posture, dating advice, and self-defense. But don’t worry, you’ll enjoy the sassy comebacks from these teens!

Anne wants nothing to do with Ernie’s mutton chops, but maybe Jennifer will give him a chance? (From “Dating Scene” [1972]).
We will celebrate “Sweet 16…. Millimeter” at a different location this month. Instead of our usual haunt, The Bishop, we will screen these films at The Void (1607 S. Rogers St.) on February 19th at 8pm. This is an all-ages venue so feel free to bring your own pre-teens and teenagers!

This month’s program offers a comedic yet compelling look at self-confidence, especially for young women. Whether it’s about taking care of your body, your image, or your safety, these films offer important life lessons for everyone, and not just teenagers. Featuring films from each decade spanning the 1940s through the 1970s, this month’s program is co-presented by an expert in teen media, a second-year PhD student at the Media School, Megan Connor. Her research examines teen girl culture, specifically media franchises and considers the ways these franchises are produced by media industries and consumed by audiences. Megan has completed seven rigorous years of fieldwork living as a teen girl and her favorite teen drama of all time is One Tree Hill.

You will sit a little straighter in your chair after you watch Sitting Right (1946), a film among a slew of instructional films intent on making sure that young ladies were sitting, standing, walking, and generally conducting themselves with grace a poise. We here at SGS are concerned about your posture but we are also interested in the pithy jabs the narrator makes at the girls in the film, for instance, “Don’t bother to drape yourself around a chair, Doris, try sitting in one for a change!”

Girls become better than ever with callouses and calcium! (From “Girls are Better than Ever” [1967]).
Grab a glass of milk and enjoy the second film in our program, Girls are Better than Ever (1967). Considering that this film is brought to you by the American Dairy Association and the President’s Council on Physical Fitness, Sports, & Nutrition, you might think you’re in for a real doozey – as if we need more people telling us what to do! But fear not, Girls Are Better Than Ever will have you laughing at the quaint advice and gratuitous images of dairy products. What’s more, this film will address your burning question: Why should girls care about physical fitness in the mechanical age?

After learning about the value of exercise and healthy eating, you’ll be ready for a day at the beach! Maybe you’ve got a special significant other to tag along with you like Cliff and Dory or perhaps you’ll find yourself surrounded by exes like Anne does. Dating Scene (1972) features different couples at various stages of relationships, navigating the treacherous waves of romance. Does Dory really want to go to the auto show? Why doesn’t Anne warn Jennifer about Ernie? Dating Scene offers a comedic look at teens navigating first love and friendship.

“Gossip” (1953) demonstrates that it’s better to see no evil, hear no evil, and hear no evil.

Speaking of friends, it helps to know who yours are! When we tune into Gossip (1953) we find that Jean is initially pleasantly surprised by the abundance of friends and suitors when she starts a new school. But when one young man tries to get fresh with Jean, she resists his advances only to become the school pariah! There’s concern that she’ll have to go to a new school! Are these rumors too vicious to recover from? Will Jean become a drop out?! You’ll have to attend to find out!

As our second film demonstrates, girls are better than ever, and tougher, too! Teenage girls may get a lot of flak but they are strong-willed too! In our final film for the program, we see three teenage girls tackle emergency situations and self-protection. Self-Defense for Girls (1969) presents a humorous but incredibly informational look at ways to defend yourself from an attacker. All in all, “Sweet 16… millimeter” will have you sitting and self-defending right!

Girls can really sock it to ‘em! (From “Self-Defense for Girls” [1969]).
Join us at at 8pm The Void (1607 S. Rogers St. – between Patterson Dr. and Rockport Rd.) this Sunday, February 19th for a fun-filled free show!

February’s Films:

Sitting Right (1946, 10 min.)

Girls are Better than Ever (1967, 14 min.)

Dating Scene (1972, 16 min.)

Gossip (1953, 11 min.)

Self-Defense for Girls (1969, 16 min.)

– by Katie Lind

Just in Time for the Holidays – “Holiday Shopwise”!

As the semester winds to an end and the holiday season gears up, join us for one final Social Guidance Sunday this weekend at 8pm! Become a more informed consumer and fulfill your shopping needs with consumer tips, lessons about the five-finger discount, and a grocery bag full of market priced goods (mostly sweets). That’s right, for the low, low price of $0, we bring you a “shop” class full of fun, educational films about shopping!

We guarantee that you won’t have buyer’s remorse when you join us at the Bishop this Sunday, December 4th. We provide four fantastic films that are marketed to your interests: from the entertaining, Why Do You Need to Buy? (1971), a humorous look at the emotional influences in buying things, to the serious topic of stealing from businesses (Shoplifting, 1973), you will gain so much that you’ll feel like you’ve hit the biggest sale of the year!

Help Jeffrey shop for his girlfriend’s birthday party with Product Costs: What’s In Them? (1979). Jeffrey enlists the unlikely but informative local grocer to help him learn about comparison shopping, wholesale distribution, and retail markups from a grocer. Just wait ‘til you see where Jeffrey ends up throwing the party!

The jury’s still out on whether Jeffrey’s girlfriend appreciates the dump truck on her birthday cake, but she should be proud of her boyfriend for getting the best deals and learning how to shop wisely! (from: "Product Costs: What’s In Them?" [1979]).
The jury’s still out on whether Jeffrey’s girlfriend appreciates the dump truck on her birthday cake, but she should be proud of her boyfriend for getting the best deals and learning how to shop wisely! (from: “Product Costs: What’s In Them?” [1979]).
You’ll learn so much information, you’ll feel giddy like a kid on Christmas Eve! Speaking of Christmas Eve, we have a special treat: The final film will be A Filmmaking Experience (The Night Before Christmas) a 1974 film based on the poem “A Visit from St. Nicholas” by clement Moore. The film features an eighth-grade art class creating the set design, planning the animation, and constructing a charming holiday film.

Ah Santa, he sees you when you’re sleeping, he knows when you’re awake. And he’s going to decide on whether you make the Naughty or Nice List if you don’t tip your bartender! (from "A Filmmaking Experience (The Night Before Christmas)" [1974]).
Ah Santa, he sees you when you’re sleeping, he knows when you’re awake. And he’s going to decide on whether you make the Naughty or Nice List if you don’t tip your bartender! (from “A Filmmaking Experience (The Night Before Christmas)” [1974]).
We are joined this month by guest co-programmer Jesse Balzer, a PhD student and instructor at the Media School. His work focuses primarily on the labor of film and media marketing, and he currently teaches a section of Advertising and Consumer Culture at IU. In addition to accidentally stealing a hot dog once from a gas station, he has also made many unwise purchases in his life. Like you, he is excited to become a better, more responsible consumer through the magic of educational film.



Product Costs: What’s in Them? (1979, 13 min.)

Why Do You Need To Buy? (1971, 10 min.)

Shoplifting (1973, 21 min.)

A Filmmaking Experience (The Night Before Christmas) (1974, 10 min.)

~Brought to you by Katie Lind

Part II: On the way…to digitization

Digital videotapes waiting to be digitized.
Digital videotapes waiting to be digitized.

In a previous installment of this blog, we described the recent acquisition of the Agency for Instructional Television/Technology (AIT) and its importance as a collection for future researchers.  Once unpacked, the materials from AIT were sorted, counted, and inventoried by IU Libraries’ Moving Image Archive staff in order to prepare the items for digitization. The process includes recording as much information as possible about the specific object, such as whether it is a broadcast master, raw footage, or a production element. The more information that can be preserved about these items the better, as this information will be valuable to future researchers who may want to know more about the production workflows at AIT. The recorded images that appear on many of these items provide potentially useful information about shooting locations, particularly those around AIT’s offices in Bloomington and the Central and Southern Indiana region. For instance, one AIT program about economics and small business development depicts the interiors of an early location for the Bloomingfoods Market and Co-op. Other bits of raw footage depict the Indiana University campus and downtown Bloomington before some of the urban renewal projects that altered the appearance of the city. 

Detail of U-matic monitoring equipment.
Detail of U-matic monitoring equipment.

Before any of these videos are ready to be viewed, they are sent to the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative (MDPI), which, partnering with Memnon Archiving Services, a division of Sony, has been working to preserve several varieties of audio-visual material held on IU’s campus in multiple libraries and archives. Our staff took a tour of the facility MDPI and Memnon shares to see just what some of the dedicated preservationists there have been up to and to see the process that some of our AIT materials have been undergoing on their way to digitization.   

– By Saul Kutnicki

Andrew Depuzzo, director of Memnon U.S. operations, at a digitization unit for U-matic tapes.
Andrew Depuzzo, director of Memnon U.S. operations, at a digitization unit for U-matic tapes.
Mike Casey explaining the process to Moving Image Archive staff.
Mike Casey explaining the process to Moving Image Archive staff.
Digitization workstation with U-matic and DVCam decks.
Digitization workstation with U-matic and DVCam decks.
Glenn Hicks explains how he does quality control on the large volume of digitized files processed everyday.
Glenn Hicks explains how he does quality control on the large volume of digitized files processed everyday.
Digitization Technician making adjustments to audio tape decks.
Digitization Technician making adjustments to audio tape decks.
It's back to work for IU Libraries Moving Image archivists!
It’s back to work for IU Libraries Moving Image archivists!

Social Guidance Sunday’s Halloween Edition is an Educational Scream!

On the Eve of All Hallows’ Eve, the Social Guidance Sunday team brings you films about safety, Halloween and haunted happenings in October’s program, “Educational Scream!” The 16mm films featured this month are primarily from the 1970s when there was a lot to be scared about – inappropriate, white supremacist costumes, clowns, and not being consumed by the media… but that was all in the past!

“Educational Scream!” has two very special guest programmers, Professor Joan Hawkins and doctoral student, Alex Svensson. Professor Hawkins is an Associate Professor of Cinema and Media Studies in the Media School at IU. She has been a passionate fan of horror since she first saw James Whales’s “Frankenstein,” when she was 9 years old. Her scholarship and pedagogy feature horror and the avant-garde and her best-known book is Cutting Edge: Art Horror and the Horrific Avant-garde. She is currently working on book on independent horror. Outside of the classroom, Professor Hawkins has appeared in horror films as well: a cameo in the film “Headless” (Arthur Culipher, 2015) and a starring role in a student film about a Satanic faculty cabal. Alex Svensson is a PhD student and Instructor at IU Bloomington, and his research focuses on both the advertising of horror and the horrors of advertising. He has published work about eerie movie trailers and haunted mobile apps, and will hunt for horror VHS tapes with you any day of the week!

As experts in horror and experimental filmmaking Alex and Prof. Hawkins will have plenty of fun nuggets of information for you to consume while you enjoy these films. Come in costume for a costume contest during intermission and bring your sweet tooth as there will be plenty of treats to eat!

In the mansion, there was a staircase, and up the staircase, there was a room, and in the room, there was a chair that moved on its own!!
In the mansion, there was a staircase, and up the staircase, there was a room, and in the room, there was a chair that moved on its own!!

The film line-up begins with a haunted house, reminiscent of Disney’s Haunted Mansion. Filmed from first-person point of view, you will explore the haunted house in Haunted Mouth (1974) and encounter B. Plaque, a ghost-like figure with the laugh of the Joker (a la Batman [1966]) that will teach you that near-invisible things can still be quite scary!

Just when you thought trips to the dentist couldn’t get any worse, we bring you the scary film, Toothache of the Clown (1972). After eating too many treats and nursing his toothache with lollipops and sweets, a clown falls into a nightmarish, perhaps nitrous-oxide induced trance that gets him to see the need for proper dental hygiene.

You’ll be astounded by the transformation of this witch into a safety-conscious princess!
You’ll be astounded by the transformation of this witch into a safety-conscious princess!

Social Guidance Sunday cares about your wellbeing, so along with dental care, we will next share tips and tricks for costumes and trick-or-treating in the film Halloween Safety (1977). Although you may think you know how to create a proper Halloween costume, this film will provide you with alternatives that will make you reconsider your costume choices. Additionally, this film shares some quality jokes you can use while you are out collecting treats!

Breath Death (1964) an experimental film by Stan VanDerBeek will make you re-evaluate your life and marvel at death.
Breath Death (1964) an experimental film by Stan VanDerBeek will make you re-evaluate your life and marvel at death.

After a short intermission, our program shifts gears from safety tips and tricks to more surreal yet silly Halloween-type films. First, there is Breath Death (1964), an experimental film directed by Stan VanDerBeek featuring skeleton animations performing the Dance of Death to a rather catchy tune. Dedicated to the silent film greats, Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton, this film explores the somber topics of death and destruction in a surrealistic, fantastical way.

Following this, we present Recorded Live (1975), a silly film that was written and directed by S.S. Wilson who went on to direct Tremors (1990), Wild Wild West (1999), Tremors II: Aftershocks (1996). This partially stop-motion animation was featured on HBO’s “Short Takes” between feature films in the 70s and 80s. It is a funny, all-consuming film!

Finally, we conclude “Educational Scream” with the 1977 film The House of Accidents. This is a particularly delightful film that adopts a rather unusual approach to household safety. Featuring Count Accident and his family, we learn about all the ways one can create an unsafe environment that can lead to all sorts of hazards. This is a crowd pleasing film with activities that are fun for the whole family!

So please join us for what is sure to be a fun, if a little frightening, Social Guidance Sunday! And make sure to follow us on Facebook for the next SGS program on December 4th.

October’s films:

Haunted Mouth (1974, 13 minutes)

Toothache of the Clown (1972, 8 minutes)

Halloween Safety (1977, 11 minutes)

Breath Death (1964, 15 minutes)

Recorded Live (1975, 9 minutes)

The House of Accidents (1977, 16 minutes)

~Katie Lind

Archiving Thousands of Videotapes from the Agency for Instructional Technology

At the Indiana University Libraries’ Moving Image Archive staff members have spent the last two summers unpacking and processing 20+ pallets of audio-visual and paper materials from the Agency for Instructional Technology (AIT), formerly located here in Bloomington, IN. The process has included identifying and inventorying material in preparation for digitization and cataloguing. The handling of AIT’s materials has provided its own unique educational instruction in media formats from the past century with all variety of audio-visual materials including: 16mm and 35mm film, Hi8, DVCAM, MiniDV, U-matic tape, 1″ reel-to-reel tape, BetaCam and BetaCam SP, VHS, Digital Audio Tape (DAT), and more. The final count yielded approximately 18,000 audio and video items on over twenty-three different formats! You’ll hear more about the digitization process of these materials over the next few weeks on the Moving Image Archive’s blog. 

Decades of audio and video formats from AIT’s collection, some of which are now being digitized by MDPI.
Decades of audio and video formats from AIT’s collection, some of which are now being digitized by MDPI.

Originally founded in 1962 as the National Instructional Television Library (NITL), AIT operated in Bloomington for almost fifty years, creating educational television programming for National Educational Television (NET) and later PBS. The organization saw itself as leader in developing educational material for a television age and believed that evolving televisual technology could, according to one AIT catalogue, “complement traditional teaching by providing ‘field trips’ through time and space, demonstrations, and simulations.” A shift in emphasis from “television” to “technology” in 1984 marked the expansion of AIT to include development of instructional materials for computers and other technologies. The mission of AIT paralleled the various audio-visual instructional activities at Indiana University’s own Audio-Visual Center (AVC) and the NET Film Service, which, through a network of collaborative efforts, produced and distributed educational programming for nearly half a century.     

National Instructional Television Library newsletter detailing a symposium held at Indiana University in the 1960s.
National Instructional Television Library newsletter detailing a symposium held at Indiana University in the 1960s.

AIT’s collection is an important resource for historians working on non-theatrical moving images, since it provides an extensive resource evidencing the process of educational media production, particularly as it transitioned from film to broadcast television and video. While much of the writing on educational film, such as in Learning with the Lights Off (2012) and Useful Cinema (2011), has focused primarily on earlier periods of the history of educational media, the materials from AIT extend that history into the video, digital, and computing era, offering a glimpse into the cooperative development of educational audio-visual production and programming. The collection will ultimately provide researchers with access to the inner workings of a specific education and media organization, which was part of the vast and complex network of filmmaking and videography professionals, programming and distribution sites, and innovation in educational media production. The materials acquired from AIT by the Moving Image Archive include not only items such as distribution masters that show a final product, but also raw footage, unedited interviews, and audio recordings that were the building blocks of educational programming. Along with these materials are important papers and photographs that help tell the story of AIT as an institution—from the actual program-making process that included scripts and contracts to files containing the profiles of professional actors who specialized in the field of educational programming performance. 

AIT’s catalogue collection. Along with these catalogues are over one hundred boxes of paper materials from AIT’s offices.
AIT’s catalogue collection. Along with these catalogues are over one hundred boxes of paper materials from AIT’s offices.
The acquisition from AIT couldn’t have come at a better time, since the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative, which was announced in 2013, has been aiming its digitization efforts toward the preservation of audio and video recordings that exist on bygone formats that are now in danger of complete obsolescence or degradation.
Stay tuned for the next blog post, where we’ll describe in more detail the digitization process these media materials have been undergoing! If you have questions about the collection or would like to schedule a research visit, please email iulmia@indiana.edu. 
– by Saul Kutnicki