Summer fun at the Biological Field Station

 In the summer of 1895, Professor Carl H. Eigenmann established a “Biology Station” at Turkey Lake in Kosciusko County, Indiana – the first inland biological station in the United States. Established with the consent of University Trustees, Eigenmann was allowed to use the apparatus from the zoology department for the duration of a nine week summer session with the understanding that there would be no cost to the University as a result of operating the station. The first year, however, was such a success that thereafter the trustees provided permanent equipment.

The purpose of the station was research and instruction in the biological sciences with a focus on the study of variation. The first year 19 students attended. That number grew to 32 the second year, 63 the third, and 103 the fourth year. The number of classes offered also increased so that by the summer of 1898, students could study zoology, botany, bacteriology, mathematics, French, and German. At the end of the fourth year, the station was moved to Eagle Lake (Winona Lake), where land was gifted by the Winona Christian Assembly along with funds for building two small, two-story frame buildings.

Buildings at Winona Lake

The 1920 announcement for the summer session outlines living arrangements for the students. It states students have a wide choice – they can tent camp; rent a room for $2-$4 week; or even stay at the local hotel with weekly rates of $10 and up. Boats could be rented for private use for $5-$10 for the entirety of the summer. Laboratory fees for the summer were $25. Work every weekday consisted of one lecture and six hours of laboratory or field work, with supplementary reading, or two lectures and five hours of lab or field work. Saturdays they finished up at noon.

In 1938, formal instruction at the station ceased, a victim of the Depression. After that, it was primarily used as a research center for faculty and graduate students. In 1960, the Department of Zoology brought forth a proposal for a new program in field biology, complete with a new Biological Station and Aquatic Research Unit, in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Conservation. The Board of Trustees approved the proposal, and in 1961, a new location was selected at Crooked Lake in Whitley and Noble Counties. In 1965, the land at Winona Lake was sold back to the Winona Lake Bible Conference for $2,000.

With support from the National Science Foundation, the Station at Crooked Lake was up and running within a few short years. Research centered on the utilization of normal stocks of fish in Indiana lakes as well as the exploration of ways to increase fish production. This field station is still owned and used by Indiana University researchers and students.

Interested in knowing more about any of the Field Stations? We can help; just drop us a line. I also recommend checking out this blog post from the Wylie House. In addition to being a museum, Wylie House also holds manuscript collections, including the papers of Morton C. Bradley, Sr. Among Bradley’s papers are letters he wrote whilst courting Theophilus Wylie’s granddaughter, Marie Boisen. In the linked-to post, the Wylie House has transcribed several letters written while Bradley was a student at the Turkey Lake Biological Station in 1897 and 1898.

Processing the Henry H. H. Remak Collection Continues…

Henry H. H. Remak
It’s been about a month or so since I began working on the Henry H. H. Remak collection. During that time I’ve done a cursory examination of just under 40 boxes of documents that were taken from Professor Remak’s office, and I have about 60 more to go. In my last post on former Professor Remak I gave you a brief glimpse into his life story, and like so many others before me, I praised the love and care he had for his students. He cared for them not only as students but as individuals, a fact evidenced by the first two requirements that he gave to each and every one of them. First, each student had to turn in a detailed autobiography, and its worth noting that Professor Remak kept, if not all, many of these student biographies. Second, each student was to visit Henry Remak in his office at the beginning of the semester. The point of this was not to put his students on the spot, but rather to get to know each one of them as a person with unique interests and intellectual needs.

In one of Remak’s papers written for the Collins Living-Learning Center, a residential program on the IU campus that promotes academic exploration for undergraduates, Remak expressed frustration over an incident he had with “a bright student.” Professor Remak recommended a worthwhile, intellectually stimulating German film to this intelligent young man. In response, the young man stated that while he would like to see the film, unfortunately his friends would not be into that type of movie. Remak’s response to this encounter was to feel sadness, “sadness because (the young man) was falsifying his nature in order to maintain group acceptance.” In the essay, Remak goes onto to state that good grades are incomplete without “lively, self-motivated thinkers and doers with enough imagination and spontaneity to take chances…” Remak valued these qualities in his students, and I believe that he also valued them in himself, which is evidenced in the following example.

A letter from Alfred C. Kinsey to Henry H. H. Remak

I’ve come across almost an entire box full of Kinsey Institute files that reflect Remak’s dedication and willingness to assist, promote and often defend the Institute. From the very start of Dr. Alfred Kinsey’s work on human sexuality, Henry H. H. Remak gave his full support, despite the often vehement disapproval that the Institute has received from some camps since Dr. Kinsey began his research. As a student, Remak was one of the earliest contributors to Kinsey’s sex history files in the late 1930s, which essentially instigated a life-long admiration for Dr. Kinsey, as well as a professional relationship between the two men. A little over a decade later, when Remak had only just begun his career at IU, Remak assisted Dr. Kinsey by correcting translations of his seminal works: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Remak actively supported the Kinsey Institute once again by serving on the Friends of Kinsey Board of Directors.

Much later when Dr. Remak was Vice Cancellor and Dean of the Faculties, he wrote a long letter to Cornelia Christenson, author of the 1971 book Kinsey: A Biography. In it Dr. Remak praises Christenson for her “authorial modesty” and “objectivity” but he does have one or two small criticisms to make, the most telling of which is in response to her line, “‘He was perhaps not a great man.” Remak adamantly disagrees, claiming that “there was never any doubt in my mind, from my earliest contacts with him. . . that he was indeed a great man, I would have to say the greatest I have known in fair proximity.” Remak goes on to state that Dr. Kinsey had a profound influence on his own research, despite their differing fields of study. Additionally, in an article entitled “Courage as a rare commodity,” written for the February 26, 1999 issue of IU Home Pages, Remak would list Dr. Kinsey as among his heroes along with Eleanor Roosevelt, Herman B Wells and Ralph F. Fuchs.

To conclude my second blog post regarding the Henry H. H. Remak collection, I will simply say that through his intentions and actions, the late Dr. Remak seems to have possessed as much integrity and “modern heroism” as those that he so deeply admired.

New Exhibit! “Cushman’s Curiosity in Black and White”

Limestone Quarry. Bedford, Indiana, 1933.
Limestone Quarry. Bedford, Indiana, 1933.

Many organizations and individuals in the United States and Europe are now familiar with the name, Charles W. Cushman. Cushman graduated from Indiana University in 1917 and his color photographs dating from 1938 through 1969 have been widely viewed and utilized in documentaries, books, newspapers, magazines & websites across two continents. However, most people are completely unaware that Cushman was also shooting high-quality black and white images well before 1938 through the early 1940s.

This exhibit highlights some of Cushman’s finest black and white images as well as examples of the notes he kept, other documents, and camera equipment.

We invite you to stop by the Archives (Wells Library E460) through September 30, 2011 to view this exhibit.

If you are unfamiliar with Cushman’s works in color, then please visit the Charles Cushman website at

For more information contact Brad Cook, Curator of Photographs
Office of University Archives and Records Management
Herman B Wells Library E460
Bloomington, Indiana 47405

The start of a new internship

Hello everyone, allow me to introduce myself. My name is Kris Stenson, and I’m one of the newest interns here at the IU Archives. I’ve recently completed the last of my classes for my MLS here at IU, so this is my sole remaining requirement before I receive my degree. In next few months I will be posting updates on work I’m doing for the archives, as well as my own opinions and musings related to those projects. Hopefully this proves as informative to you as it will be to me.

I’ve just made it to the end of week two, and am still very much feeling out my role here. Later in the summer I will be working on processing a collection or two, as well as perhaps some records management work with departments here on campus. Right now my immediate task involves new digital exhibit software the archives is trying out: Omeka ( It’s an open-access program which is being worked on as a way to present certain archival materials to the public in an interesting and visually stimulating way. While most of the design work has been done by a colleague from digital libraries, I will be working to select materials for display, upload them into the software, add contextual metadata, and provide text to explain and tie together the objects.

April 1969

In conjunction with Indiana University’s upcoming fall Themester, “Making War, Making Peace,” I have been tasked with creating an exibit of materials related to student protests here at IU, particularly during the 1960’s. Thus far I’ve been digging through press clippings, leaflets and such, and next will look at photographs, administrative papers and student government materials. I’ve so far identified several different events which will have pages devoted to them: a 1962 Anti-Cuban blocade protest and counter-rally, the 1967 Dow Chemical sit-in, the 1968 Little 500 sit-in to protest racial inequality, the May 1969 student fee class boycott, the related Ballantine Hall lock-in and the October 1969 Vietnam War Moratorium Day protests. I’ve only begun to scratch the surface, but there is much more to be found.

I plan to present more details of each of these events in this blog as the summer progresses, so that we all might understand a little more about a controversial and influential time here at IU.

Until next time.

The papers of former IU Professor Henry H. H. Remak are now being processed!

 Recently I was asked to process the papers of Henry H. H. Remak, former Professor Emeritus of Comparative Literature, Germanic and West European Studies at Indiana University- Bloomington. Not many current IU students will have heard of him, as he passed away in 2009. I would venture to guess though, that those who have heard of him and especially those who had the pleasure of knowing him personally, would have nothing but good things to say. Before starting in on the collection, I did some research on this well-known and beloved professor. While I don’t want to spend a lot of time paraphrasing Professor Remak’s biography, which can be found in more detail in countless newspaper and magazine articles, I will give a very brief outline.

Born a German Jew in Berlin in 1916, it should come as no surprise that by the time Henry Remak was twenty years old, he was attempting to emigrate to the United States. Though a difficult and time-consuming process, Remak was finally put in touch with IU Bloomington’s chapter of Sigma Alpha Mu thanks to the YMCA. Some of the alumni of Sigma Alpha Mu, a fraternity with strong Jewish ties, offered to sponsor Remak for free while he tried to find work. In many later interviews with Remak, it was apparent that he fell in love with Indiana University and with Bloomington right from the start. As a result, he wanted to do everything in his power to stay there, so he decided to become a student of the university. Since he didn’t have enough money to pay for tuition, he convinced the then president of IU, William Lowe Bryan, to let him attend for free. Having already completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Montpelier in France, Remak eventually obtained a master’s degree from IU in 1937. Ten years later, with a PhD in hand from the University of Chicago, Remak returned to Bloomington, this time as a full-time professor of Germanic Studies and Comparative Literature.

Dr. Remak wore a variety of hats while at IU. Not only was he Vice Chancellor and Dean of Faculties for a time, but he was also a founder of the West European Studies program, Director of the Institute for Advanced Study and Fulbright lecturer in both Germany and France. Remak’s list of achievements goes on and on. In 1987, at the age of seventy-one, Remak tried to retire but couldn’t stay away from IU for long. He returned and joined the faculty of the Honors College. Remak didn’t stop teaching until his deteriorating health prevented him in 2005. He passed away in February of 2009 at the age of ninety-two.

There is much to be said about this brilliant professor and much-loved man. It’s difficult to know where to start. Luckily, it will take many months for me to finish this rather large and dusty collection, so this is the first of several blog posts to come. Before concluding, I’d like to say a bit more about the collection. Give or take, there are about one hundred boxes with documents from as early as the 1940s to as late as the 2000s. The collection is as disorganized and as dusty as his office was described as being. Professor Remak didn’t seem to mind though, and in an article published in the September/October 1999 issue of the Indiana Alumni Magazine he claims, I suspect with a mischievous glint in his eye, that “a clean, uncluttered desk is the sign of a sick mind.” Perhaps he’s right. The condition and chaos of his papers certainly doesn’t make them any less interesting to peruse through.

Included in the collection are many administrative documents from when Remak was director of the Institute for Advanced Study and also from his time as Vice Chancellor and Dean of Faculties. Other documents pertain to Remak’s publications and research in comparative literature, but the majority of papers I’ve come across have been teaching files. Apart from being a husband and father of four, Henry Remak’s role as a teacher must have been his most cherished. This became apparent to me when I noticed how many student papers and biographies Remak kept, not to mention the significant amount of correspondence between Dr. Remak and his former students. Another clue is that Remak was a dedicated member of several committees devoted to improving the lives of students and the quality of teaching at the university.

Though I’ve only grazed the surface of the collection, I am looking forward to continuing. In my next blog post I plan on sharing more particulars about Henry Remak’s professional life, as well as some of the interesting documents that I’ve found while working on this collection.