Behind the Curtain: Katie Morrison, Archives Assistant

Behind the Curtain is a series highlighting IU Archives staff, partners from various departments of the IU Libraries, and students who make all of our work possible. 

What is your role in the IU Archives? Katie works as a processor in the IU Archives.  She helps with the arrangement and description of record collections.

What is your educational background? Katie’s educational background is rather impressive.  In 2012, She graduated with a BA from Purdue University, where she majored in Art History and minored in both English and History.  In 2014, she graduated from the University of Colorado with her MA in Art History.  She is currently working on obtaining her MLS with a specialization in Archives and Records Management. She will graduate in the summer of 2019. She was recently accepted into the PhD program in Information Science at IU and will start fall of 2019!

What previous experience do you have in archives? Her fascination with the archival field began at a young age.  This was due in part to her parents, both of whom are history professors.  This fascination followed her into adulthood, all the way to the University of Colorado.  While working on her master’s thesis, Katie spent a fair amount of time with the Jerome P. Cavanaugh Papers and Detroit Free Press photographs at the Walter Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs.  Though she had enjoyed her previous use of online archival resources, it was this experience that held the greatest impact on her.  “It was pretty much the transformative experience of my life…. that hands-on experience was big for me,” says Morrison.

What attracted you to work in the IU Archives? Katie approached the IU Archives after some encouragement from other student workers to apply.  “I knew this would be the best place on campus to get hands-on processing knowledge, and everyone I met was instantly encouraging and warm”, she says.  It would also seem that she has found camaraderie with several co-workers who also happen to be Boilermakers.  “Go Purdue!”

Favorite item or collection in the IU Archives? The Leon Varjian papers are Katie’s favorite collection in the IU Archives.  “IU is fortunate to have such great documentation of counterculture happenings on campus in the 1960s and 1970s. Varjian’s cartoon map of Bloomington as “Fun City” reminds me of some of my favorite irreverent counterculture art collectives like Drop City. It’s smart without being pretentious, funny, and inherently political.”

What project are you currently working on? Katie curated an installed an exhibit here, “Thomas Sebeok and the Scientific Self,” using materials from his collection (she is also close to finishing the processing of that collection). She wanted to show how Sebeok brought together a range of disciplines in his scholarship. “There remains such a mystique about how academics think and work, and I wanted to demystify that a bit while still acknowledging his prolific intellect.” The exhibit is open through the end of March.

Favorite experience in the IU Archives? Despite being a “cynical person”, Katie says that every week brings a new favorite experience.  “Everything from reading letters written in the 19th century, to installing an exhibition, to encoding finding aids…it’s all a joy,” she says. She particularly enjoys assisting with outreach and class sessions with undergraduates.

What is something you have learned about IU by working in the Archives? Overall, Katie has learned that IU has a deep and rich history.  The knowledge of this history would not be possible without the hard work put in by the University Archives and its affiliates.  “The diversity of materials and stories contained in this archive is extraordinary. People may think a university-centered archive would be a) dull or b) small and boutique-like. Really, it is the opposite! The IU Archives has a kaleidoscope of times, materials, perspectives, and experiences to share.”

Educating the Educators: The I.U.-Thailand Project

 

Course catalog for the College of Education, Bangkok, Thailand. (Indiana University Archives, C347, Box 2.)

Beginning in 1954 and lasting until 1962, Indiana University partnered with education officials in Thailand to bolster the country’s methods of education for new teachers. Working under a contract through the United States government, I.U. provided technical and financial assistance to Thai universities. The project’s overall goal was to “build an institution capable of providing educational experiences which would provide leadership sorely needed in Thailand’s effort to modernize its educational system” by preparing teachers to work in Thai schools, create instructional materials, and perform consultant and research work on problems in education.

The need for teachers with quality pedagogical training stemmed from the rapid expansion of the Thai education system. When Thailand passed its compulsory education law in 1921, the number of children enrolled stood at 241,508 students. By 1954, the year I.U. began offering assistance, the number had significantly risen to almost 2,900,000. While the large number of students was hailed for providing an education to a large number of Thai children, the rapidity meant “expansion was done at the expense of quality… preparation of teachers to teach in those schools.”

Dr. Robert Shaffer speaking at a conference in Thailand. (Indiana University Archives, Accn. No. 2018/116, Box 1.)

Among the I.U. faculty who went to Thailand was Dr. Robert Shaffer, who was Dean of Students from 1955 to 1969. From October 1961 to January 1962, Shaffer served as a consultant to administrators at Chulalongkorn University, providing assistance in the development of personnel services. Prior to Shaffer’s visit, all students at Chulalongkorn University took the same classes, resulting in a rigid curriculum. Shaffer worked to establish a placement bureau, an alumni association, and a counseling office. In a February 2, 1962 article in the Indiana Daily Student, Shaffer noted “we hope that the system of faculty counseling, especially in regard to entering students, will introduce more flexibility into the present program at Chulalongkorn University.” Shaffer’s efforts to create student counseling offices were hailed by officials in Thailand. In a letter to university president Herman B Wells, an official at the American embassy in Bangkok wrote, “Dr. Shaffer’s program has been one of the most successful that any American Specialist has had in this country.”

Cover of souvenir book from Chulalongkorn University. (Indiana University Archives, Accn. No. 2018/116, Box 1.)

By the time the program ended in 1962, the collaboration between I.U. and Thailand resulted in 2,638 students graduating with a Bachelor’s of Education. Bhuntin Attagar, a Director General in the Ministry of Education, wrote, “it is my belief that the Indiana University Contract has done much more in promoting international understanding and cooperation than has ever been done before in the history of Thai education.”

There are a number of records in the Archives related to IU’s work in Thailand. For more information on IU’s partnership with Prasan Mitr College of Education and the Thai Ministry of Education, see the “IU Thailand Project records, 1953-1975.” Want a closer look? Contact the Archives to schedule an appointment!

Indiana Remixed Playlist Project: Indianapolis

Our Indianapolis spotlight starts in the late 1920s with “Kokomo Blues” by Scrapper Blackwell. Blackwell, an Indianapolis native, wrote and recorded this song in reference to Kokomo, Indiana, and the song is notably the basis for Robert Johnson’s iconic “Sweet Home Chicago.” Jumping forward 20 years to 1949, Indianapolis continues to be home to iconic blues artists like Guitar Pete Franklin, who in addition to solo recordings is credited alongside delta blues legends like Tampa Red.

By the 1950s and into the 1960s, pop music shifted to accommodate a growing interest in country, rockabilly, and vocal groups. The Blankenship Brothers of Indianapolis were unique in their blending of rockabilly tempos and rhythms with country-influenced vocal harmonies and traditional fiddle accompaniment, as heard on their 1959 B-side “Lonesome Old Jail.” Vocal groups like the Four Freshman would fade entirely from popular music by the 1960s, but their impact on the future of popular music is undeniable, and the Indianapolis quartet is cited as a major influence by Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys. Bobby Helms, a singer and lifelong Indiana resident, is notable for his place in country music history, contributing to the growing market for country records with singles like 1957’s “My Special Angel” and the 1959 holiday classic “Jingle Bell Rock.” Even lesser known Indianapolis artists like Lattie Moore anticipated the coming popularity of rock ‘n’ roll with upbeat, guitar-driven recordings like “I’m Not Broke, but I’m Badly Bent.”

By the 1950s and 1960s, a surprising amount of jazz artists came out of Indianapolis, revolutionizing the world of jazz in the process. J.J. Johnson, a notable trombonist and Indianapolis native, released the iconic “Blue Trombone” in 1957. Meanwhile, three Indianapolis brothers, Wes, Monk, and Buddy Montgomery, each changed the trajectory of jazz with their mastery of guitar, bass, and piano respectively. Though they are each notable members of independent groups and solo compositions, their chemistry together is undeniable, as heard on tracks like “Bock to Bock” from 1961’s Groove Yard. Wes himself is an icon in jazz, revolutionizing jazz guitar with his unique stylings best represented in the recently released live concert performed in Indianapolis in 1959.

By the late 1960s, rock ‘n’ roll and psychedelic music had fully invaded popular culture, influencing groups across the city to experiment with a fusion of historically popular music and psychedelic studio effects. Garage rock act Sir Winston and the Commons exploded out of Indianapolis with 1966’s “All of the Time,” becoming mainstays in Chicago nightclubs. Southeast of Indianapolis, in the small town of New Palestine, bands were traveling to the home of Moe Whittemore to record at 700 West, an independent recording studio welcoming the experimental artists of Indianapolis. Sessions at the studio produced hours of psych-influenced gems, from the acid-funk of Ebony Rhythm Band and Indianapolis legends Amnesty to the guitar driven Anonymous and proto-metal group Primevil.

The city housed a thriving soul, gospel, and funk scene in the 1970s and 1980s, sparking the formation of LAMP Records, based in Indianapolis. LAMP was home to a plethora of Indianapolis soul and funk groups, the city’s artists producing countless lost hits like the Indy’s “Come See About Her” and P.H.D.s’ “The Way It Used to Be.” Bands like Manchild, an early project of Indiana star Kenneth “Babyface” Edmonds, came close to stardom with the hit “Especially for You” released in 1977. Gospel groups like the Stovall Sisters and King James Version made national waves with driving rhythms and powerful vocal arrangements. Into the 1980s, Indianapolis continued to produce iconic recordings reflective of national music trends. Al Hobbs and His Indianapolis Mass Choir released the upbeat and energetic gospel record Let Him Have His Way in 1982. As new wave and power pop grew in popularity across the globe, Indianapolis’ The Late Show released their album Portable Pop in 1980, and though it failed to chart, potential hits can be heard, as displayed on “Take a Chance.”

By the 1990s and into the 2000s, hip hop had taken the nation by storm, and artists in Indianapolis began to release their own contributions to the genre. The city’s early hip hop scene is best exemplified by Mudkids on their 1998 debut 4 Trackmind. Experimental hip hop artists like MAB LAB also came up in the late 1990s naptown hip hop scene, offering a unique blend of beats, samples, live instrumentation, and soul influenced vocalizations on their 1999 track “Fade Back.” Towards the end of the 2000s, instrumental artists like The Sound Defects offered their take on hip hop instrumentation, as heard on 2004’s “Faded Soul.”

Moving into the 2010s and 2020s, new artists have emerged to carry the torches passed on by their musical predecessors. Country, folk, and pop rock are blended together into the sound of Margot and the Nuclear So & Sos, as represented here by “Broadripple is Burning.” Experimental hip hop and electronic music is being pushed to new extremes by artists like Indianapolis’ DMA. Garage and psychedelic rock have seen a resurgence in the last decade as represented by artists like Vacation Club. Indianapolis natives Hoops continue to release soul and funk influenced guitar rock, with a new record due out soon. Hip hop in Indianapolis is more active than ever, led by exciting young artists like Nagasaki Dirt, Oreo Jones, Mark Battles, and Sirius Blvck. These and many more modern Indianapolis artists represent a coalition of the city’s rich musical history, pushing the boundaries of their genres into the new decade and continuing the tradition of leaving powerful cultural artifacts for future generations of naptown artists.

Resources for Further Exploration
On LAMP Records – episode of “Cultural Manifesto” on LAMP Records, out of Indianapolis
700 West Studios – label website for 700 West Studios, out of Indianapolis
Oreo Jones – interview with Oreo Jones about Indianapolis and growing up in Indiana
The Mudkids – interview from NUVO magazine with the Mudkids

Indiana Remixed Playlist Project: Bloomington

Our Bloomington spotlight starts with perhaps the most easily recognized and acclaimed Indiana artist, Hoagy Carmichael. The composition “Stardust” is notable, recorded numerous times by countless artists, but it is this example that is represented here, both sung and performed by Hoagy, a Bloomington native, but also recorded in Richmond, Indiana and released on Richmond label Gennett Records in 1950. Carmichael’s history is represented across town, from his statue on IU’s campus to his burial site in Rose Hill Cemetery to the Stardust bridge on Bloomington’s northwest side.

Jumping ahead to the 1970s we see the emergence of a rich independent music scene in Bloomington, best represented by the labels Bar-B-Q Records and Gulcher Records. The former came to encompass a collective of artists recording music that combined jazz, psychedelic rock, and folk elements into a unique regional sound, as represented by the Screaming Gypsy Bandits on their track “Junior” from their 1973 release In the Eye. Featured on this album is Caroline Peyton, who’s solo albums on Bar-B-Q further evolved this regional sound. Her 1972 effort Mock Up plays on-par with popular female folk artists of the time, fusing acoustic stripped arrangements with peculiar time signatures and jazz instrumentation. Her follow up Intuition, released in 1977, is more embedded in country rock, with full band arrangement and pop accessibility. Labelmate and Lebanon, Indiana native Bill Wilson made considerable contributions to this sound, bringing the influence of the Texas country rock scene with him upon returning to Bloomington in 1972. His 1973 album Ever Changing Minstrel is a perfect harmony of country and rock music, blending country instrumentation and rock structure and drive with powerful lyrics representative of the nation’s climate.

The latter label, Gulcher Records, came to encompass a scene that was radically different. Despite being a small and completely independent label, Gulcher housed recordings and releases by several of punk’s most significant acts, including Indiana natives Zero Boys and the Gizmos. The driving rhythm, distorted instrumentation, and aggressively shouted vocals of Indianapolis’ Zero Boys was heard by punks across the nation, influencing future generations of punk and rock musicians. The scene was a hot spot for artists embodying this aggressive new genre, as heard on The Panics’ “I Wanna Kill My Mom,” released in 1980. The Gizmos were proud torch bearers for the midwest sound happening in Bloomington, as embodied in 1981’s “The Midwest Can Be Alright” (consider this a response to 1980’s “Can’t Stand the Midwest,” a furious punk criticism of Indiana from West Lafayette’s Dow Jones and the Industrials). Gulcher records also housed New Wave acts hailing from Indiana, like Bloomington’s Amoebas in Chaos and MX-80. The Bloomington punk scene became a nexus for experimentation with the punk sound, as represented by a fusion of punk and electronic music heard on E-in Brino’s “Indianapolis and the Dancing Cigarettes” & “Pop Doormat,” both released in 1981.

Moving into the 1980s, we see the emergence of perhaps Bloomington’s second most notable and easily recognized artist. John Mellencamp, born and raised in Seymour Indiana, had found commercial success in the late 1970s and early 1980s with singles like “Hurts so Good,” “I Need a Lover,” and “Jack & Diane.” At a crossroads in his career, Mellencamp decided to return to his home state, starting what would become a tradition of writing and recording in Indiana that would last the rest of his career. 1983’s “Pink Houses” glorified small town America, harkening to a nondescript image of average American life with accounts of vague American characters. Building on this theme and creating the image for which he is best known for, Mellencamp released Small Town in 1985, with the hit single “Small Town,” an anthem not only for small town America but also for Indiana. Mellencamp, who resides now in Bloomington, remains a proud torch bearer for Indiana music and art into the new decade.

In the 90s, artists began expanding upon the alternative rock explosion in popular culture. As shoegaze, noise rock, and grunge began to take underground and eventually mainstream markets by storm, Bloomington’s Arson Garden released their sophomore effort Under Towers in 1993, an album laden with noisy guitars affected with pitch shifting effects pedals. Horror-punk act The Nevermores released their first and only album Lock Your Doors… in 1991, blending the familiar Bloomington punk sound with Farfisa organ and screamed lyrics. Antenna formed in Bloomington after the dissolution of Blake Babies, releasing guitar driven songs with pop sensibility and distorted riffs inherent to grunge and alternative rock acts, as heard on 1993’s “Shine.”

By the late 1990s and early 2000s alternative rock had splintered and shifted in numerous directions, one towards a genre that would be coined “Emo,” inspiring genre pioneers Early Day Miners. The Bloomington band released Let us Garlands Bring in 2002, and songs like “Centralia” embody the band’s desolate and slow guitar driven compositions, layered with somber strings and whispered harmonies. Bloomington’s Good Luck took a different approach to emo music, fusing the genre’s lyrical frustration with punk’s pace and instrumentation and pop’s accessibility, as heard on 2008’s “Stars Were Exploding,” which specifically references Lake Griffy. Moving into the 2010s, the underground music scene’s of America began to revisit the early rock ‘n’ roll sound of 1960s garage bands. Apache Dropout released “Teenager” on independent label Family Vineyard in 2011, echoing the sound of Bloomington’s original punk scene. Triptides, originally of Bloomington, combines reverb-drenched guitar tones with whispered lyrics and psych-influenced song structure, as heard on 2012’s “Sun/Shine.” Diane Coffee harkens back to bubble gum pop and r&b tunes on tracks like 2013’s “Green.” Bands like Thee Tsunamis are reminiscent of Bloomington’s original punk scene while creating unique garage rock tracks like 2015’s “Drag.” Into the mid 2010’s Bloomington remained a haven for experimental artists as well, like the ambient electronic project Lake Daggers, whose 2015 “Rite II” is built upon a sparse musical landscape consisting of drum machines and droning synth bass.

Bloomington artists continue to build on the traditions of artists before them. Dasher combines punk aggression with effect-laden guitar tones reminiscent of shoegaze and alternative Bloomington bands from the 1990s. T.V. Mike & the Scarecrows produce tight country rock that would fit in the Bar-B-Q Records circa 1975. Indie pop duo Spissy combine the pop sensibilities of 1970s and 1980s rock radio with mellow guitar-driven arrangements that Mellencamp could tap his foot to. Bloomington is also home to a new generation of inspired folk musicians, like Kay Krull, whose distinctly unique recordings continue to evolve the sounds of Caroline Peyton. The Wonderhills also build on the Bar-B-Q Records sound, combining elements of bluegrass and old time into a unique folk-fusion. The Cowboys remain torch bearers for the Bloomington punk scene, bringing a fresh perspective to fast-paced, power-chord driven anthems. Amy-O draws from the same history of Bloomington’s 1990s alternative rock scene, expanding the sound with catchy riffs and beautifully arranged vocal harmonies. Most importantly, however, Bloomington remains a place for artists to blossom and create new music movements, as heard in Durand Jones & the Indications, whose retro-soul revival music is quickly gaining recognition across the nation. As it has always been, Bloomington is a place for artists across Indiana and even the world to come together, influence and inspire one another, and create exciting and timeless music.

Resources for Further Exploration
Arson Gardon – article about Arson Garden, an art rock project out of Bloomington, from Nuvo Magazine
Caroline Peyton – piece on folk artist Caroline Peyton, from Numero Group
Gulcher Records – write-up about Gulcher Records and the Bloomington punk scene
Bill Wilson – article from Nuvo Magazine about Bill Wilson, a Bloomington cosmic country artist

Indiana Remixed Playlist Project: Gary

Our Gary, Indiana spotlight starts in 1954 with the Spaniels’ third single “Goodnight Sweetheart,” released on Vee Jay records. Vee Jay, founded in Gary in 1953, would go on to become one of the most important r&b labels in the nation, paving the way for the rock ‘n’ roll explosion in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Early examples of rock ‘n’ roll can be heard on The El Durados’ “At My Door (Crazy Little Mama),” released in 1957. Vee Jay was also home to Jimmy Reed, who moved from Mississippi to Gary in the 1940s. Reed brought with him the sound of delta blues and combined that with the sound of early rock ‘n’ roll acts on Vee Jay’s catalogue, creating a unique and driven version of the blues that would influence countless rock ‘n’ roll acts into the late 1960s, as heard on tracks like 1958’s “Ain’t That Lovin You” and 1960’s “Big Boss Man.”

Moving into the late 1960s, we see the emergence of Gary’s most notable stars, the wildly popular Jackson 5. The child soul group quickly rose to international fame and created the star that was Michael Jackson. Provided here are the original 1967 recordings from the group, the first known studio sessions actually recorded in Gary. Known as the Steeltown sessions, the band’s harmonies backing Michael’s already powerful and distinct voice can be clearly recognized on tracks like “Big Boy,” the band’s first successful single, which received considerable airplay in the Gary and Chicago area. Gary is also home to r&b legend Denice Williams, whose landmark single “Free,” released in 1976, is a significant contribution to the genre. Williams would go on to have a successful solo career that would last well into the 1980s with the single “Let’s Hear it for the Boy.” The 1980s would also see Michael Jackson rise far above the commercial success he had with his brothers on his solo release Thriller in 1982, an album that would go on to become the best selling album of all time. Though the Jacksons had left Gary for the west coast by this time, the monumental success of their collective careers make them perhaps the most significant Indiana artists with regards to international cultural impact.

By the 1990s, r&b had evolved to incorporate elements of 1980s pop and the increasingly popular hip hop movement. Janet Jackson made significant strides in pioneering this genre-blending type of r&b, as heard on 1993’s “That’s the Way Love Goes.” Janet became an icon upon the release of this album, exploring sexuality from the female perspective and setting herself apart from her brothers and their musical legacy to create her own. The album’s sound was fully evolved on her 1997 follow up The Velvet Rope, featuring some of Hip Hop’s biggest names. Though Janet left Gary in her earliest years, her sound was massively influential to a number of artists in Gary during the 1990s. Among these artists is r&b duo Trina & Tamara, whose 1999 eponymous debut had all the makings to be a chart topping hit, as heard on the single “What’d You Come Here For?” Equally inspired by the Jackson’s legacy was Trina and Tamara’s older brother Jesse Powell, whose 1996 single “You” would rise to critical acclaim, topping the r&b charts and earning him a grammy nomination.

Gary is now home to several torch bearers for the region, particularly in the world of hip hop. Freddie Gibbs has perhaps received the greatest amount of recognition, emerging in the early 2010s with tracks like “Eastside Moonwalker” that explore life in Gary. Gibbs carried the representation of his home city into commercial success on his revolutionary 2014 release Pinata. The collaboration with producer MadLib contains tracks like “Harold’s,” a partial ode to Harold’s Chicken in Gary, Indiana, and “Thuggin,” an ode to Gibbs’ upbringing in the city. Gibbs’ 2019 effort Bandana evolves the artists sound further, and tracks like lead single “Flat Tummy Tea” firmly establish Gibbs as one of the most important names in contemporary hip hop. Gary is also home to Will $crilla, whose 2017 Fresh Out the Joint Buzz Builders recounts the artists arrest and release from prison and explores life in Gary. Keeping in the tradition of experimentation and genre-expansion, Gary footwork artist Jlin releases works that fuse dance, techno, and hip hop into unique instrumental compositions. These artists carry the city’s tradition of pioneering artists into the 2020s, maintaining Gary’s legacy of being a hot spot for inventive artists with the potential to impact the international music scene.

Resources for Further Exploration
The Rise and Fall of Vee-Jay Records – NPR article on Vee-Jay Records, founded in Gary, Indiana
Interview with Freddie Gibbs – interview with the hip-hop artist on his hometown of Gary
Interview with Jlin – interview with the footwork artist on Gary
Jackson 5 Homecoming – news story about the Jacksons returning to Gary