Parsifal: The Return of an IU Tradition for the Bicentennial

Guest Blogger : Erin Chiparo is the Public Services Supervisor and Stacks Coordinator at the IU Libraries, William and Gayle Cook Music Library. 

Richard Wagner is an excellent case study in the failures of moral absolutism. The nineteenth-century German composer, thinker, and conductor did a lot of good things and a lot of bad things – and his actions have had a lasting legacy, even here at Indiana University. In preparation for the Jacobs School of Music’s upcoming production or Wagner’s opera Parsifal, I examined a number of items from three different libraries on campus: the William and Gayle Cook Music Library, the Lilly Library, and the Indiana University Archives. What I discovered are a series of objects that tell a fascinating, and complicated, story about Wagner, his music, and their connection to IU.

Color stage shot showing the Knights of the Holy Grail
Parsifal, March 1966. IU Archives image no. P0026422

I went to the Lilly Library first. In 1850 Wagner published his now infamous essay under a pseudonym, and that essay was reissued with his true name in 1869. The Lilly’s copy of Das Judenthum in der Musik (“Jewishness in Music”) is a first edition and still lies within its original pale green wrappers. Perhaps it is all in my head, but the physical object seemed to project a wicked aura. Within it, Wagner expounds upon his notorious Anti-Semitic views, insisting that musicians of Jewish descent cannot possibly live up to the intrinsic creativity of German culture. He also denounces two well-known Jewish composers, Felix Mendelssohn and Wagner’s nemesis, Giacomo Meyerbeer. To this day, Meyerbeer’s reputation still hasn’t completely recovered from this defamation. Given this level of reprehensibility, I was ready to give up on Wagner. But I decided to look at another item – a first edition full score of Wagner’s Parsifal.

Piano vocal score front title page for Richar Wagner's Parsifal: ein Bühnenweihfestspiel. Includes the following information in german: Vom Orchester fur das Klavier ubertragen von Joseph Rubinstein
Parsifal: ein Bühnenweihfestspiel – Piano vocal score, 1883 ed. William and Gayle Cook Music Library

At the William and Gayle Cook Music Library, I examined an 1883 edition of the piano vocal score for Wagner’s Parsifal. The copy features an elaborate title page and marbled end papers. It is still possible to see the impressions where the nineteenth-century plates were pressed onto the paper. As exquisite as this score is, the music is even more beautiful. Wagner first conceived of Parsifal in 1857, but the work did not premiere until 1882, just a year prior to his death. Rather than referring to the work as an opera, Wagner called it ein Bühnenweihfestspiel or a “Festival Play for the Consecration of the Stage.” Parsifal premiered at Bayreuth Festspielhaus and was performed there exclusively until 1914. The work tells the story of the twelfth-century knight, Parsifal the “pure fool,” who in his youth witnesses the rite of the Holy Grail. The young man, filled with compassion, eventually overcomes the villain, Klingsor, in order to ultimately redeem the Knights of the Grail. Musically, Parsifal is a triumph. It contains some of the most powerful moments in opera.

In addition to the beautiful piano vocal score, I viewed another full score that belongs to the Lilly Library. This was a particularly special copy because it was previously owned by Fritz Busch, a great German conductor. Busch actually conducted another of Wagner’s operas at Bayreuth in 1924. The beauty of this particular score lies in the myriad colored pencil markings throughout, which outline Busch’s personal interpretation of the opera. Interestingly, Fritz Busch was forced out of his position with the Dresden State Opera in 1933, five weeks after Hitler came to power, because he opposed the Nazi regime and because he was perceived of as having too many Jewish friends and acquaintances.[1]

Program with the following text : INDIANA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MUSIC Thirty-Second Season Parsifal: A Religious Music Drama in Three Acts by Richard Wagner An Indiana University Opera Production Palm Sunday, April 2, 1950 Act 1 - 4:00 pm Act 2 - 7:15 pm Indiana University Auditorium
IU School of Music – Parsifal program, April 2, 1950. IU Archives accn. 2001/031

But how does all of this relate to Indiana University? What impact have Wagner and his works had here? At the IU Archives, I found hundreds of photographs, concert programs, publications, and correspondence regarding Parsifal at IU. Beginning in 1950, the IU School Music performed Wagner’s Parsifal annually to correspond with the Lenten season. Dean Wilfred C. Bain, and director of orchestral music, Ernst Hoffmann launched a combined effort to spearhead the first performance. The two men felt that the opera was especially fitting for the IU Opera Theater stage because it could showcase the school’s strong wind section, strong tradition of choral singing, and mature male singers. Many of these students came to the school of music later in life as the result of the GI Bill.[2] Several of the original lead vocalists including D. Ralph Appelman, Margaret Harshaw, and Roy Samuelsen stayed on as school of music faculty. Fritz Busch’s son, Hans Busch, joined them as the IU Opera Theater Director for a number of years.

Red and black program with the following text "Indiana University Opera Theater - Parsifal March 19, 1967, 19th annual production"
Indiana University Opera Theater – Parsifal March 19, 1967 program

IU’s Parsifal became the first IU School of Music concerts for which tickets were sold. Some of the performances even included a Parsifal Supper so that audience members could come together for a meal at the Indiana Memorial Union between Acts I and II of the multi-hour production. IU students often performed the opera in English because according to Bain, “the only way to make it popular with large American audiences was to present it in intelligible English translations.”[3] The production received worldwide attention and accolades with reviews published in Opera News. The final annual performance ran in 1969, and the tradition ceased in order to save money and resources and in order to give music students the opportunity to experience a greater variety of repertoire.

Nevertheless, the impact of Parsifal is still palpable. The Jacobs School of Music is one of the best schools of music in the world and one of the finest aspects of IU. Perhaps some piece of that is because of Parsifal, in spite of Wagner’s questionable morals. In honor of Indiana University’s bicentennial anniversary, this November the Jacobs School will present its first production of Parsifal in decades. The opera, directed by Chris Alexander and conducted by Arthur Fagen, will feature a cast of professional vocalists and music students. No doubt it will be in interesting addition to IU’s operatic legacy. If you don’t have tickets yet, it looks like there are still some available!

To find out more about the history of productions of Parsifal on the IU Bloomington campus, contact the IU Archives.

[1] Michael H. Kater, The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 79.

[2] George M. Logan, The Indiana University School of Music: A History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 160-161.

[3] Ibid., 164.

By Martha: Advice from The Veteran

The Veteran was an independent newspaper published by Indiana University students from the Fall 1946 to Spring 1947. The intent of this paper was to provide information to incoming and current veteran students at Indiana University about current events and functions that were happening on campus.

Masthead from "The Veteran: An Independent Paper for Veterans of Indiana University", Vol. 1, No. 1, February 11, 1946, 5 cents a copy

Within The Veteran were several reoccurring columns that touched on student life, personal issues, and any questions that a veteran might have in reference to their training or education. All were very interesting and cleverly named, however, none of them seemed to catch my attention like the column By Martha.

By Martha was an reoccurring opinion column featured directed mainly towards the wives of veterans. The author of By Martha was unknown to the reader, as it functioned as an anonymous advice column. Each column outside of its first appearance, was structured around answering questions that a wife might seek advice on such as cooking, budgeting, home improvement, and childcare. The information given was very informal to the woman of that day, and frankly some of the advice is still applicable to readers today.

Newspaper clipping with the following text: Eloise Kelly Bride-elect - A wedding which will take place during the Christmas holidays is that of Miss Eloise Kelly and William Lee Small both of Indianapolis. The bride elect is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Kelly of Howe and Mr. Small is the son of Mr. and Mros Floyd Small, Knightstown. Miss Kelly is a gradaute Manchester College and the bridegroom will re-enter Indiana University this fall. He has been discharged from the Army after spending the last six months in Europe.
The Indianapolis Star, September 3, 1945, Page 7

During the last issue of Volume 1, it was stated that originally The Veteran was supposed to be a one semester project. However, due to the support from readers and faculty, its release was extended into the following semesters. During this issue they also gave thanks to the writers and staff members who made The Veteran possible each month. Here, the identity of the By Martha columnist was revealed to be co-editor Eloise Kelly Small. A graduate of Manchester College, Eloise married William Lee Small on November 22, 1945. William graduated with his B.S. in Business in 1946. After the birth of their child, Eloise took a break from writing and subsequent columns in Vol. 3 were written by various staff members whose identities remained anonymous.

Newspaper clipping with the following text: Monday, June 3, 1946 By Martha “What shall I have to eat?" Three times a day, seven days a week, this cry is heard in almost every kitchen where there is a busy working-girl housewife. In answer, here are scads of simple dinner menus. For most part these menus call for food that can be purchased now or that will be on the market very shortly. A bread and spread are not given with the menus as every person's taste differs. How­ever, since this commodity has practically disappeared from the racks in the groceries, you can bake cornbread, all types of muf­fins, biscuits, and even yeast bread IF you have the time and energy. Or you can use packaged mixes. Here are your menus: Salmon croquettes, buttered peas, red cole slaw, fruit cup. Macaroni and cheese loaf, but­tered cabbage, sliced tomatoes, grapefruit halves. Fried oysters (you can buy them canned at almost any grocery), tartar sauce, mashed turnips, escalloped tomatoes, peanut cook­ies, baked pears. Barbecued hamburgers, mash­ed potatoes, buttered carrots, cauliflower with chive butter, toasted doughnuts. Fish fillets baked in lemon sauce, baked potatoes, buttered beets, hearts of lettuce with French dressing, fruit gelatin, chocolate cake. Lamb chops, corn-on-the-cob, tomato and romaine salad, pack­aged chocolate pudding with chopped pecan topping. Tomato juice, chicken pie (make it from a jar of canned chicken giblets thickened with cream sauce and topped with biscuit crust), spinach, rice and apricot pudding. Clam chowder, cole slaw, cottage pudding. (Cheese baking powder biscuits would be wonder­ful with the chowder). Individual meat loaves, butter­ed succotash, apple and banana salad, oatmeal cookies. Sausage shortcakes (fry saus­age patties and place between two buttered biscuits. Serve with milk gravy), turnip greens, pick­led beets, diced fresh pineapple. Tomato juice, cheese rarebit on toast, buttered string beans, hearts of lettuce salad, peach shortcake (canned or fresh peaches on store sponge cake served with cream). Codfish cakes, whole kernel corn, stewed tomatoes, cole slaw, cut up bananas and oranges. Baked beans, panfried sausag­es, cabbage and pineapple salad, baked pears (Tint them pink with vegetable coloring, sprinkle with nutmeg and sugar, bake. Serve with cream.) Italian spaghetti, tossed salad fruit cup (hard rolls were mad for spaghetti dinners)."
“By Martha,” The Veteran June 3, 1946

A common theme in the By Martha columns centered on food frugality, it is obvious that providing their families nutritious meals without spending too much on groceries was important to veteran families on campus. Here are some tips that Martha gave on making your shopping last:

“Help your shelf and help yourself”. “Take advantage of the variety of canned foods that line the grocers’ shelves.” “Take for example the humble can of tuna fish. You can have tuna salad, tuna sandwiches, creamed tuna on toast squares, tuna served with spaghetti or macaroni, tuna with rice and cheese sauce, or tuna chow mein …” (Vol 1. No. 1, pg. 2

“Topmost in the minds of most housewives these days is what can be done to conserve on food, especially wheat.” “In the first place buy only bread you absolutely must use. Reduce your family’s bread diet to a minimum.” “If you must use flour, remember it will be an emergency flour. Emergency flour is a creamy white to beige colored wheat product.” “Emergency flour does not keep as well as white flour. It should be bought in small quantities and stored in a dark, cool place.” (Vol 1 No. 8, pg. 2)

“Be sure your meals provide best food value for money spent.” “Don’t wait to plan your meals at the grocer’s. Make out menus two or three days ahead, taking into account the perishable foods you have on hand.” “It’s the cost of the food you actually eat that counts.” “Avoid leftovers, but use well those you have. Work them into the day’s meals.” “Compare prices of canned, quick-frozen and market vegetables and fruits. The canned or quick-frozen foods are often cheaper than the fresh, and require less fuel, time and effort to prepare.” (Vol 2 No. 4, pg. 3) 

The advice that By Martha gave seems like advice that would be useful to someone now. I know that I am someone that needs to be more frugal with food, so I am sure that her readers found the advise useful.  Along with cooking tips, By Martha also offered cleaning and gardening hacks. Here are some tips to help you spend less time and yield the same results:

“A dash of salt is wonderful on grapefruit. It brings out that natural flavor and decreases the sourness, to say nothing of helping on short sugar rations.” “Lemon-soured milk can replace natural sour milk or buttermilk in any recipe.” “Small apartments and trailers are wonderful to keep clean and have a cozy atmosphere, but what to do about cigarette smoke, a stale odor or the lingering breath of cooked cabbage or onion? Worry no more – get a bottle of Air Wick. Pull out the wick of the magical little bottle and the air soon is sweet and clean.” (Vol 1 No. 5, pg. 2)

“You who make your home in temporary quarters must garden, if you garden at all, in pots and window boxes.” “Don’t make the window box too small. Make it as long as it is wide. Extend it past the window opening four to six inches on either side rather than fit it into the sill.” “Choice of soil depends on the type of roots on the plants you decide to grow.” “In this type of box, watering is required almost daily.” (Vol 1 No. 6, pg. 3) 

“Are you freshening up your apartment with a coat of paint? If so, mask your windowpanes when you paint woodwork and you won’t have to spend tedious hours removing paint spatters. Just cut newspaper to fit the glass, dampen the paper and press it in place. It’s far easier to remove than hardened paint.” (Vol 1 No. 2, pg. 2) 

Newspaper clipping with the following text: February 25, 1946 By Martha (Send your home - making questions to Martha, The Vet­eran, 302 South Madison.) From time immemorial the fate of women has been to spend all her waking hours chained to her home (particularly the kitchen) and children. The modern woman slowly is growing away from this but there's no doubt that even the working wife gives a great deal more time and effort to housework than she feels should be necessary. Occasionally a single suggestion can save precious minutes and even hours, not to mention frayed nerves. To simplify shredding lettuce, dicing celery and many other sim­ilar tasks buy a pair of shears from the dime store-or if you're more flush most hardware stores have regular kitchen scissors for sale. This single purchase saves time and often a cut finger or a scrc1tched table top when you don't own a chopping board. Turning stale bread and crack­ers into crumbs need not be messy if you slip a paper bag over the head of your grinder. It will catch those flying particles and you won't have to wipe a film of crumbs off the floor. You can grind the crumbs right into an­other paper bag if you want to. Are you freshening up your apartment with a coat of paint? If so, mask your windowpanes when you paint woodwork and you won't have to spend tedious hours removing paint spatters. Just cut newspaper to fit the glass, damp­en the paper and press it in place. It's far easier to remove than hardened paint. While we're on the subject of woodwork, have you been having a daily hair-pulling session when you try to remove fingerprints? To remedy this put several coats of a good grade of paste wax sparing­ly on your woodwork and rub each well into the grain of the wood. Fingerprints will disappear with one swish of a damp cloth. Incidentally, this wax treatment does away with a lot of surface film and spots. Have you ever tried paper dust­cloths? The latest type on the mar­ket is packaged in a roll. You dampen one piece and wipe the dusty surface. Then you polish with a dry sheet. This paper is created with a polish which makes wood surfaces gleam. It's truly a remarkable innovation. And what do you do with Junior or little Susan while you try all these wonderful time savers? For one thing you might give them a nickel's worth of cranberries or similar fruit and a box of tooth­picks and show them how to make tables, chairs, wigwams, etc. Lack­ing these materials, hand over your clothespin bag. Or better still let them paint shell macaroni with water colors.
“By Martha,” The Veteran, February 25, 1946.

Another important topic of advice in By Martha centered around childcare. This topic however wasn’t as frequent as other topics discussed and only appeared in two columns. The columns mainly focused on how to prepare for a new addition to the family, and the types of items one should get before the new arrival. One column in particular was all about diapers and here are a few tips:

“If you are a new mother or even not so new, you’ll agree to one thing. Diaper washing is the hardest, most time-consuming job in your daily routine.” “Of course the best solution to the problem would be a good diaper supply service, but if you can’t do that, decide on a regular time for the job and stick to it.”

“An excellent diaper to use when traveling, or for contagious diarrheal condition, is one which can be disposed of after it is soiled. Such a diaper is on the market and consists of two layers of gauze between which is a soft, highly absorbent cellulose fiber.”

“Wash the diapers thoroughly in hot suds, either by hand or in the washing machine, and put them in fresh suds for boiling. Boiling diapers is really a safety measure, and although it is sometimes inconvenient, and time-consuming, it is not wise to omit. (Vol 2 No. 5, pg. 3) 

The final topic of advice shared from By Martha is centered around budgeting. Given the advice shared above, it would be fitting that they would all filter down to the unspoken idea of having a budget. Budgeting was a very important and useful skill for the veterans to have, as most of them were given monthly bonds based on their family size or marital status. To help those families and veterans from being financially burdened, here are some helpful tips:

“It must be custom-made to meet the particular needs of your family group. There is no such thing as a ready-made or standard budget, because no two families spend their money in exactly the same way. So when you start to plan your budget, sit down and decide what you want to get out of life.”

“Successful budgets are based on past experience. Before you start yours, keep a written record of all personal and household expenditures for a month. Total all of these items and multiply by 12. This give you the part of your annual income which may be used for running expenses.”

“How well the budget works is up to you. The best budget can’t help you unless are resolved to stick with it religiously. If you feel you need more help than given here you might want to consult the library shelves. Two particularly good books on the subject are: Managing Personal Finances by David F. Jordan and How to Make Your Budget Balance by E.C. Harwood and Helen Fowie. “ (Vol 1 No. 7, pg. 2) 

If you would like to view The Veteran in its entirety, contact the IU Archives to set up an appointment.

Finding common ground: conversations on applied folklore in the Bloomington community

"What have Bloomington and Monroe County been like in the past? What can they be like in the future? Can we, should we, find any Common Ground?"
Excerpt from the 1998 call out letter.

This past summer, the Indiana University Archives hired me to focus on some of the Archive’s time-based media (i.e., tapes and film) that have gone through the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative. The goal has been to work on the description of the pieces — some of which had nothing more than “Side A” or “Side B” — and to work with the head of the Libraries’ Copyright Program to determine what level of access we can provide.

Given my background as a PhD student in the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, one of the first projects I was tasked with were the recordings digitized from the Department’s records here in the IU Archives. There are a few different chunks of recordings within the records; this post focuses on recorded conversations from a 1998-99 Visions of Place project sponsored by local businesses and the Indiana Humanities Council.  A subset of the larger project was Common Ground, a public folklore initiative of which the Indiana University Folklore Department was a partner. This project focused on understanding the meaning of community and neighborhood within Bloomington and Monroe County. Descriptions of the “Photo Days” and story collecting sound quite similar to modern-day “History Harvests” which we sometimes see hosted by local historical societies around the country. Included with these recordings are some from 1996; it seems likely that the interviews and conversations between folklore graduate students and professors at that time influenced the development of the Common Ground public folklore initiative.

The recordings in this collection document weekly summer meetings between professors and a team of six graduate students as they developed plans for a public service folklore project in Bloomington. Ultimately, the group decided to work towards building community between local senior citizens and children through joint folklore programming with the then neighboring community centers, Kid City and Older Citizens Center. The recordings, on audio cassette, capture the group’s discussions about team fieldwork methodologies, ethical concerns in public folklore, and the relationship between Indiana University and the Bloomington community, both historically and at the time of the recording. The topics remain prominent in folklore studies today.

The conversations include IU folklore graduate students and professors Henry Glassie and Phil Stafford, with the latter asked to reflect on his community service work in the Evergreen Project. The Evergreen Project invited a nursing home community in Bloomington to reflect on their sense of place. The team delegated tasks and then reported back on their progress in building connections in the field. They reflected on weekly readings, discussing problems in teamwork, volunteering, and race and class relations in fieldwork and public folklore.

Also included is an interview by folklorists John Cash and Inta Carpenter with Keith Enright. Enright worked on a public folklore project to preserve Indiana folklife and heritage with one of IU’s most prominent folklorists, Dr. Warren Roberts. Their work focused on analysis and preservation on the oldest farmstead in Monroe County, the Mayfield Homestead. Enright’s research and preservation work on the pioneer homestead revealed centuries-old architectural evidence that the design was likely inspired by mystical symmetry invoked by the Freemasons. Enright also discussed the history and future of development in Bloomington and his own family heritage in the Midwest.

Headshot of Anya Peterson Royce
Anya Peterson Royce, Chancellors’ Professor of Anthropology

Additional recordings include Chancellors’ Professor and anthropologist Anya Peterson Royce on the topics of public folklore, fieldwork relationships, and service learning. Her interviews discuss her experiences with fieldwork, race, and service in Indianapolis and Martinsville, Indiana.

Finally, the Common Ground initiative closed with a group oral history interview with Russell Shaw, a local photographer and photography shop owner who shared information about his extensive collection of historic Bloomington photography.

Although all of the project participants verbally acknowledge they are being recorded, because they could have never imagined they would be streamed online, at this time researchers must contact the Archives staff for access. Further description of all of the recordings can be found within the collection description for the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology records.