Artistic Legacy of Sculptor Jean-Paul Darriau Lives on in Bloomington

Although you many not know Jean-Paul Darriau’s name, if you live in Bloomington, you have likely seen his work.

Darriau, Associate Professor of Sculpture at IU from 1961-1996, earned his Master of Fine Arts at the University of Minnesota in 1954. He received two Fulbright grants, which allowed him to spend two years working in bronze casting techniques at the Istituto d’Arte in Florence and the Guastini Foundry in Pistoria. During his career, his work was presented nationally and internationally at museums such as the Guggenheim Museum and the Joseph Hirschorn Collection in Washington, D.C. Several of those repositories, including the Indiana University Art Museum, retain examples of his sculpture as part of their permanent collections.

Today, Darriau’s art remains on display in Bloomington. Cast in bronze in 1965, “The Space Between: Adam and Eve” (seen below) is situated at the edge of Dunn Woods just behind Kirkwood Hall on the IU campus.  In May 2011, a storm with severe winds damaged both figures. Their pedestals shifted, and a fallen tree limb caused a dent in Adam’s head. The figures were restored in 2012.

Titled “The Space Between: Adam and Eve,” the sculptures are located on IU’s Bloomington campus.
Clay model of “Adam” and “Eve” before being cast into bronze.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A second piece “Red, Blond, Black, and Olive,” consisting of two 11-ton slabs of limestone carved with faces depicting the racial diversity in Bloomington, resides on the city’s Northside in Miller-Showers Park.

________ examines the partially completed sculpture.
Miller examines the partially completed sculpture.

According to the City of Bloomington, the sculpture was chosen through a competition judged by a committee of artists, businessmen, Bloomington citizens and Mayor Francis X. McCloskey. It is considered the initial achievement of Bloomington’s Community Arts Commission. After being situated in the center of Miller-Showers Park for 22 years, “Red, Blonde, Black and Olive” was relocated to its current plaza in 2002.

The City’s website explains the significance of the piece:

The finishing touches are added to sculpture, which today sits at the north end of Miller-Showers Park in Bloomington.
The finishing touches are added to sculpture, which today sits at the north end of Miller-Showers Park in Bloomington.

Aptly representing the diverse population of Bloomington, the two statues have four faces between them. Each face features a different major world race. Viewed from one side, the faces of an Asiatic woman and African woman stare at each other. An Indian man and Nordic man are face-to-face on the other side. The piece is meant to promote and celebrate communication across racial lines, and work towards universal understanding among people. The gap between the two columns is as important as the faces themselves. It is the space where conversation takes place, people come together and truths are revealed.

Darriau’s papers, housed in the University Archives, contain his published articles and correspondence as well as two boxes of photographs and slides with extensive images documenting his work, exhibitions, as well as his travels. All of the photographs in this post come from the collection.

 

 

Children of IU Faculty lived in Home Economics “Practice House”

Established in 1913, the Department of Home Economics at Indiana University sought to teach students how to be homemakers, which included courses on “Quantity Cookery” and “Institutional Management” as well as textile merchandising.

Children lived at the Practice House to give child-care experience to undergraduates.
Children lived at the Practice House to give child-care experience to undergraduates.

As part of the curriculum, the department opened its first “practice house” to teach home management in 1920. Common throughout institutions of higher education with home ec programs, the responsibilities for the girls who lived at the house were divided into several parts: student manager, main cook, salad and dessert cook, general kitchen upkeep, cleaning and care of the house, and baby director. Most of the time, a baby (usually the child of a faculty member) lived at the house full-time, sometimes for as long as two semesters. Students would live in the house for eight weeks at a time. The house remained active until at the least of the end of the 1960s.

In this photo from 1948, undergraduate students toast marshmallows at the Practice House.
In this photo from 1948, undergraduate students toast marshmallows at the Practice House.

The Department of Home Economics still exists today, although its name has been changed. On January 31, 1987, the Board of Trustees approved changing the name of the department to “Department of Apparel Merchandising and Interior Design.

The records of the department, spanning 1911-1999, are now open for research in the University Archives. Contact Archives staff for further information!

IU Professor of Chemistry Had Personal Connection to Indiana Explosives Plant

IU Professor of Chemistry, Marvin Carmack, devoted most of his career to researching organosulfur chemistry, specifically Lithospermum Ruderale, the agent of fertility control used by the American Indians. But during World War II, Dr. Carmack worked on contract with the National Defense Research Committee on high explosives and later on anti-malarial agents. Much of his attention during this period was focused on developing more efficient production methods for cyclonite (also known as RDX — Research Department explosive), an explosive more powerful than TNT. Given its power, the U.S. government approved the use of RDX in mines and torpedoes in the early 1940s. This created high demand for the explosive — a demand that couldn’t be met by existing reserves of RDX. This shortage led to the construction of the Wabash River Ordnance Works in Vermillion County, Indiana (north of Terre Haute). The E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company ran the plant; Dr. Carmack also worked for du Pont later in his career. (The ordnance plant eventually became known as the Newport Chemical Depot and was used for chemical weapons storage for the rest of the twentieth century.)

Dr. Marvin Carmack (third from left) talks with other chemists after delivering a lecture at du Pont Laboratories (1952).
Dr. Marvin Carmack (third from left) talks with other chemists after delivering a lecture at du Pont Laboratories in 1952.

After his retirement, Dr. Carmack returned to researching RDX, this time focusing on George C. Hale, an Indiana University alumnus and scientist who was one of the first people to develop RDX during World War I. The fruits of that research turned into a lecture delivered to the American Chemical Society annual meeting in 1990. (All of Carmack’s research and drafts of his talk can be found in his papers.)

But professional research were not the extent of Dr. Carmack’s connections to RDX. They extended to the personal: Dr. Carmack, himself born and raised in Vermillion County, had ancestors who traveled to the area in 1830. The land his ancestors claimed eventually became the site of the Ordnance Plant one hundred years later. As Professor Carmack wrote to a friend in 1990, “Our family seemed to have a destiny with RDX!”

To read more about RDX or to learn about Dr. Carmack’s other research interests, correspondence, and teaching notes, visit the finding aid for the Marvin Carmack papers and contact the IU Archives for questions on access to the papers!

IU War Service Register Documents All IU Veterans

The War Service Register records are now open for research at the University Archives!

Used to the compile the original Golden Book housed at the Indiana Memorial Union (listing every IU alum who served in war), the War Service Register of Alumni and Former Students provides information on Indiana University alumni and former students who served in U.S. wars between 1860 and 1945 (i.e., the Mexican War, Civil War, the Spanish-American War, the first World War, or the second World War).

William Arthur Millington's World War I War Service record
William Arthur Millington’s World War I War Service record

The Alumni Office requested that each alum provide his or her name, degree, class year, dates of service, date of discharge, rank, and record. The amount of information provided, however, varies from student to student.

For those students serving in World War II, the material is much more comprehensive and often includes newspaper clippings and correspondence between IU and the enlistee and/or his or her parents. There are records for dozens of female enlistees. The Record (filled out by alumni) included, among other things, blanks for present service address, previous stations, and the question “are you receiving the alumni magazine?” In addition to the paper records, photographs were frequently sent to the Alumni Office (now housed in IU’s photograph collection).

Kathryn Griffith enlisted in the Marine Corps Women's Reserve in July 1945. At IU, she was a member of the Women's Athletic Association, Alpha Delta Pi sorority, and the Association of Woman Students.
Kathryn Griffith enlisted in the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve in July 1945. At IU, she was a member of the Women’s Athletic Association, Alpha Delta Pi sorority, and the Association of Woman Students.

History of the Register

The Office of the Alumni Secretary, led by Humphrey M. Barbour in the 1920s, compiled the initial (pre-World War II) War Service Register of Alumni and Former Students, which provided information about Indiana University alumni and former students who served in a U.S. war between 1860 and 1920. The Alumni Office collated the register using alumni responses to a memo requesting information sent in the early 1920s.

During and after the end of World War II, the Alumni Office, then under the charge of George F. Heighway, repeated this same process. Besides serving as a tool to encourage subscription to the IU Alumni Magazine, the letters were also used to find out information about soldiers listed as “missing in action.”

Cpl. Julius Griesel's father responded to Heighway's letter informing him that a wounded Griesel spent ten days in a German hospital, marched seventy-two miles to Italy, before finally being "liberated" by the Russians on April 22, 1945.
Cpl. Julius Griesel’s father responded to Heighway’s letter informing him that a wounded Griesel spent ten days in a German hospital, marched seventy-two miles to Italy, before finally being “liberated” by the Russians on April 22, 1945.

 

Heighway often wrote to parents of MIA or POW soldiers expressing his concern and asking for updated information. There are many instances, such as the letter at left, when families wrote back with good news that their son was found alive. Not all replies, however, were positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harry Hanna, Class of 1926, served in the Air Service Command. Here he poses with other members of the Allied troops. In a memo encouraging the use of this photo in the Alumni Magazine, President Herman B Wells commented that "it certainly illustrates the cosmopolitan character of our Allies."
Hanna 2 Harry Hanna, Class of 1926, served in the Air Service Command. Here he (top photo, far right) poses with other members of the Allied troops. In a memo encouraging the use of this photo in the Alumni Magazine, President Herman B Wells commented that “it certainly illustrates the cosmopolitan character of our Allies.”

According to some counts, 288 former IU students were killed in action during the war. The Alumni Office requested that families of the deceased fill out a special form listing service information as well as place of burial. Most families also mailed photographs with the other information (such as the two shown below, Iceal Alford and Bernard Cederholm).

AlfordCederholm

On a personal level, these photographs were the most striking. The soldiers killed in action are indistinguishable, of course, from the rest of the photographs sent to IU. Yet, viewing their photographs, I already know how their lives ended. For those who survived, however, these records detail just a few years of their life. The rest of their life remains a mystery.

The finding aid is available here. If you have a relative who attended IU and served in the war, contact the University Archives to learn if there are records available to view!

IU Professor of Zoology Conducted Research across the World

IU Professor David G. Frey’s papers recently opened to researchers at the IU Archives. Hired as Professor of Zoology in 1951, Dr. Frey taught in Bloomington until 1986. Dr. Frey was a specialist in limnology (acquatic ecology) and an authority on the Cladocera (water flea) . At IU, he established a laboratory containing over 10,000 specimens (now housed by the Smithsonian in the Museum of Natural History).

In addition to his teaching and research at IU, Dr. Frey was active in several national and international limnological organizations. Due to his involvement, which included serving as president of the American Society of Limnology and as executive vice president of the International Association of Limnology, he traveled extensively to attend conferences and to conduct research on lakes around the world.In all, he visited forty-four countries across six continents. (He never made it to Antarctica.)

Photographs and postcards from some of his travels are included in his collection at the Archives.

Hungary

Dr. Frey traveled to Hungary in 1967 to attend the first International Symposium on Paleolimnology. During the Symposium, the attendees visited Tihany, a village in Hungary on the northern shore of Lake Balaton.

Hungary 1
A view from Lake Balaton of the village, Tihany, and a Benedictine abbey (top of the photo).
A view of Lake Balaton in Hungary.
A view of Lake Balaton in Hungary.

USSR

In 1962, Professor Frey visited the USSR as part of the National Research Council exchange with the Soviet Academy. He spent most of his time in Borok, Russia, a small, protected area in the southwestern portion of the country. Heavily forested, Borok is home to a variety of birds, including a colony of grey herons, and raccoon dogs. Visits to the region are limited to fishermen, hunters, and scientists.

Main Street in Borok, Russia.
Main Street of the small community in Borok.
Borok, Russia.
Research pond at Borok.
Borok, Russia.
Road toward pond used for Dr. Frey’s research near Borok, Russia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Austria

In 1953, Dr. Frey won both a Fulbright and Guggenheim award giving him the opportunity to study lakes in Western Europe and Austria. (He won the Fulbright again in 1985 to teach in Ireland.)

Dr. Frey exiting an Amerika Haus, likely in Austria.
Dr. Frey exiting an Amerika Haus, likely in Austria.
Dr. David Frey working on research, likely in Austria.
Professor Frey working on research, likely in Austria.

 

A partial list of the countries where Frey conducted research includes: Czechoslovakia, Nepal, Malaysia, France, Iceland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uganda.

To see the rest of the photographs or to learn more about Dr. Frey’s travels, contact the University Archives. The Frey Papers also contain his published articles and research notes.