H228: Creating Archival Stories #6

Charles Herbert Broshar by Cullen Kane

Charles Herbert Broshar

As soon as new students step on to Indiana University’s Bloomington campus, they are officially christened as Hoosiers. This name unites every single person who attends our diverse school under a common title, and with that title comes a network of past and present Hoosiers ready and willing to support each other. As Hoosiers, we have a duty to reflect on our university’s history and to remember the individuals who helped shape Indiana University into the institution it is today. The Covid-19 pandemic is shaping, and will continue to shape, our university, and during these unprecedented times, many Indiana University students contemplated taking a semester or year off, either for safety reasons or to delay schooling for a time in order to hopefully see the world return to some form of normalcy before going back to the college experience. Nearly eighty years ago, students also had the choice of returning to school or taking time off, but for those students, the choice was not a simple matter of finding a part-time job or some other way to pass the time. No, for them it was a matter of life and death, a matter of continuing their education at IU or risking their lives by enlisting to fight in the second World War.  

USS Griffin

One such student faced with this decision was Charles Herbert Broshar, a native Hoosier born and raised in Lebanon, Indiana. He started college at Indiana University and began working toward a business degree for a few years. However, seeing that the entrance of the United States into World War II was inevitable and fast approaching, Broshar, like many others, decided to enlist. On November 1, 1941, Broshar officially became a cadet in the United States Navy Reserve, serving as a storekeeper rank third-class. As storekeeper, his duties would have included purchasing and procuring the proper supplies for the ship and making orders for new shipments. Storekeeper duties also included the issuing of equipment, tools, and other consumable items to the men. On November 14th of that same year, Broshar was called to active duty as a crew member on the USS Griffin. The USS Griffin was a submarine tender, a type of ship that is tasked with keeping submarines stocked with food, torpedoes, fuel, and other supplies. Some submarine tenders, the USS Griffin among them, were also equipped with workshops to repair the submarines. After it was successfully converted into a submarine tender, the USS Griffin conducted a quick shakedown or test cruise off the East coast then headed to Newfoundland with a small sub squadron of submarines. While in Newfoundland, the ship was recalled to Newport, Rhode Island.  

USS Griffin with submarines

This Atlantic-based ship was ordered into new waters when, on December 7th, 1941, after Japan infamously attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, the USS Griffin was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. This attack officially brought the US out of isolationism and into the war, and Broshar’s assignment to the Pacific Fleet right after the Pearl Harbor tragedy must have made the war feel very real. The USS Griffin, with Broshar aboard, then departed for Brisbane, Australia on February 14, 1942 and arrived at her destination two months later on April 15, 1942. In Brisbane, the crew of the USS Griffin repaired and restocked submarines that were used to disrupt Japanese shipments. As the submarines were disrupting shipments from below the surface, the rest of the Pacific Fleet was busy preparing for the first Pacific offensives above the surface.  

After approximately nine months of supplying, repairing, and escorting submarines around Oceania, the USS Griffin arrived back in the United States on January 20, 1943, and on February 4, 1943, Broshar finally made it back to Indiana after being away from home for two years. Broshar made the most of his brief eleven day leave by marrying his college sweetheart Marjorie Ann Bicknell on February 10, 1943 at First Christian Church in Sullivan, Indiana. He returned to San Francisco on February 14th to rejoin the crew of the USS Griffin, and Marjorie followed him out west several days later in order to spend a few precious weeks with her new husband before he headed out to sea again. After leaving San Francisco, Broshar and the USS Griffin headed back to Australia and rejoined their submarine squadron before sailing closer to Japanese shipping lanes at Mios Woendi, New Guinea where they repaired many different crafts. They stayed in New Guinea until February 1st, 1945, at which point they headed to Subic Bay, Leyte, Philippines, where they set up the first submarine repair facility in the Philippines. The submarines that Broshar and the USS Griffin supported basically destroyed the Japanese merchant ships and were instrumental in the success of the Pacific Offensive. After the official Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri on September 2nd, 1945, the USS Griffin departed the Pacific and started its return to San Francisco, where it arrived on September 20, 1945. Broshar eventually found his way back to Indiana University where he completed his school and earned a bachelor’s degree in business on February 2nd, 1946. 

Charles Broshar made a choice to serve his country when it needed him most. This act of selflessness is an example to us and future generations of Hoosiers. I am proud to call Charles Herbert Broshar a fellow Hoosier, and it is people like him, people who are willing to risk life and limb for the good of others, who have brought glory to old IU.  

Bibliography 

Chen, C. Peter. “[Photo] Submarine Tender USS Griffin with Unidentified Submarines (Possibly USS Piranha, USS Lionfish, USS Moray, USS Devilfish, or USS Hacklebak), Midway Atoll, 26 Aug-1 Sep 1945.” WW2DB, ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=16856.  

Griffin, www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/g/griffin.html.  

“Indiana University.” “Charles Herbert Broshar”, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/archivesphotos/results/item.do?itemId=P0067284.  

“NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive.” Submarine Tender Photo Index (AS), www.navsource.org/archives/09/36/3613.htm.  

Fall MDPI updates – Part 1

In 2015, Indiana University launched the system-wide Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative (MDPI), with the goal of reformatting and saving deteriorating media and film that could be found across all of the Indiana University campuses. To date, more than 350,000 audio, video, and film have been digitized.

At the University Archives, in some instances, we knew who deposited or transferred the media, but so many lacked description — and we lacked the proper equipment to safely play or view many of the items – that we are just now discovering what we actually had in our holdings. It has been a long road to figure out copyright and privacy issues surrounding the digitized media but late last year, we were given the green light to begin working our way through the “dark archive” (just…30,013 items!) and begin making them accessible. Access levels are worldwide, IU-login, or restricted. Nearly all materials can be viewed upon request for individual researchers, however, and many item descriptions can be found via our collection finding aids in ArchivesOnline.

All of these items can be accessed via Media Collections Online (MCO). Some may require IU log-in for immediate access; click on the Sign In link in the upper right-hand corner of the MCO web site.

I am going to break this update into two posts, because so much has been described since my July update!

Speaking of – in July I wrote that we were working on a new project to include closed captioning for one of our first collections. It is a slow process – and the fact that we started with Russian history lectures meant LOTS of Googling to figure out spelling for names and locations, which made it go that much more slowly! But I am pleased to announce that the 1959 distance ed Russian History lectures recorded by Professor Robert Byrnes are now available WITH closed captioning! Check them out here. Access level: Worldwide

Pushed by request:

  • William R. Breneman was a very popular long-time faculty member in zoology. Annually, he delivered a lecture on evolution called “From Cadillac, By Way of Kalamazoo, to You,” that used local references to explain evolution. The lecture was so popular that it drew standing room only crowds of students, faculty, staff and locals. Over the years, we have had repeated requests for copies of the lecture and we are now pleased to say that a 1976 recording of the talk is now available for streaming at https://media.dlib.indiana.edu/media_objects/t722hs36h!
  • The talented playwright and lyricist Howard Ashman earned his master’s degree at Indiana University in 1974. He went on to have an extremely successful career working with creative partner Alan Menken on such well-known works as Disney’s Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, and Aladdin, which came out after his death. In 1987, Ashman returned to his alma mater for a production of Little Shop of Horrors (Ashman wrote the book and lyrics for the musical). While on campus, he sat down with faculty member R. Keith Michael for an interview; a number of clips from the interview were used in the 2020 documentary Howard. https://media.dlib.indiana.edu/media_objects/9s161p314
Screenshot of Ashman recording in MCO
Screenshot of Ashman recording in MCO

Completed:

C234: Indiana University Student Association (147 items): Consists largely of recordings of IUSA congressional meetings. The minutes of these meetings have also been transcribed and digitized and can be accessed via the Archives collection description at http://purl.dlib.indiana.edu/iudl/findingaids/archives/InU-Ar-VAB9446. Access level: largely Worldwide; a few recordings of interviews are restricted.

C276: William T. Patten Foundation lectures (20 items): Indiana University’s William T. Patten Foundation hosts scholars from around the world to give campus lectures in their area of expertise. Several recordings of talks have already been made available by our colleagues in Scholarly Communications but we had some recordings they did not and have published those. These additions span 1982-2006 and include both moving image and audio recordings. Access level: Worldwide

Hubert Heffner addresses students in "The Nature of Man, Shakespearean Conception."
Hubert Heffner addresses students in “The Nature of Man, Shakespearean Conception.”

C296: Hubert C. Heffner papers (10 items): Heffner was a Distinguished Professor of Speech, Theatre, and Dramatic Literature at IU and also served at times as acting director of IU Theatre. Audiovisual materials from his papers consists entirely of “The Nature of Drama” recordings produced by IU Television and the Department of Theatre and Drama in the late 1970s. In each episode, Professor Heffner explores various aspects of theatre with some thematic focuses such as “The Nature of Man” in drama or focusing on specific forms, such as melodrama, tragedy, etc. Access level: Worldwide

C298: Indiana Religious Studies Project (15 items): Formed in 1977, the Indiana Religious Studies Project brought Indiana secondary teachers to IUB to improve how the study of religion was taught in Indiana high schools. The Project’s funding ended in 1984. Audiovisual materials consist of lectures organized for Project attendees spanning 1978-1981. Access level: IU; brief descriptions can be found in the collection finding aid and outside researchers can contact us for access.

C299: Department of Theatre, Drama, and Contemporary Dance (25 items):A large part of these 25 items are recordings of the 1978 show “Drama: Play, Perception, Performance,” consisting of analysis of various works by host José Ferrer, likely used in class by IU instructors. Access level: IU, but descriptions can be found in the Audiovisual materials series of the Theatre Department’s records held by the Archives. Outside researchers can contact us for access.

C337: James King papers (13 items): In 1984, James King joined the faculty of Indiana University as a professor of Voice in the School of Music but before and after, Professor King had a career as an operatic singer. Audiovisual materials consist of audio recordings of his performances spanning 1962-1972. Access level: IU, but descriptions can be found in the finding aid for King’s papers and outside researchers can contact us for access!

Attendees at APO gathering in Boston sing the organization's song, 1985.
Attendees at APO gathering in Boston sing the organization’s song, 1985.

C355: Alpha Phi Omega – Mu Chapter (2 items): Alpha Phi Omega is a national service fraternity founded on leadership, friendship, and service. The Mu Chapter was established at Indiana University in 1929. The Archives holds a nice collection of its records spanning 1927-2008, which includes two recordings. The first one is a slideshow of photos from some of the group’s 1998 activities; the second one, dated 1985, is a recording from a larger APO event held in Boston. The camera scans the crowd as they sing what is likely the APO song. Access level: IU due to the music in both recordings but outside researchers can contact us for access!

This seems like enough for this update. Look for part two soon!

MDPI Updates – Byrnes, REEI, Poynter Center & more!

In 2015, Indiana University launched the system-wide Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative (MDPI), with the goal of reformatting and saving deteriorating media and film that could be found across all of the Indiana University campuses. To date, more than 344,000 audio, video, and film have been digitized.

At the University Archives, in some instances, we knew who deposited or transferred the media, but so many lacked description — and we lacked the proper equipment to safely play or view many of the items – that we are just now discovering what we actually had in our holdings. It has been a long road to figure out copyright and privacy issues surrounding the digitized media but late last year, we were given the green light to begin working our way through the “dark archive” and begin making them accessible. Access levels are worldwide, IU-login, or restricted. Nearly all materials can be viewed upon request for individual researchers, however, and item descriptions can be found via our collection finding aids in ArchivesOnline. For the past several months, I have shared internally what was being published but it seemed these updates should be shared more broadly! And so, without further ado….

All of these items can be accessed via Media Collections Online (MCO). Some may require IU log-in for immediate access; click on the Sign In link in the upper right hand corner of the MCO web site.

New project:

In April, Archives student Andrew wrote a post about his work on recordings from the Robert Byrnes papers, and specifically, a series of films Byrnes recorded circa 1959 on Russian history for distance education purposes. These films have since been processed through Kaltura for automatic transcription and now our wonderful graduate student Stephanie is working on cleanup. When completed, the files will be moved back into MCO and they will be our FIRST films with closed captioning! The transcripts are fairly clean but it is still slow work, taking her about 4-6 hours per 30 minute recording (she says she spends a fair amount of time looking up the spelling of Russian individuals and places!).

https://media.dlib.indiana.edu/
Screenshot of Ruissan Revolutios and the Soviet Regime opening scene from Media Collections Online

Completed:

  • Commission on Multicultural Understanding recordings (45 items): Quite a bit of content related to the Benton Murals, including several “B” rolls of footage for the documentary, “The Parks, the Circus, the Klan, the Press: A Benton Mural in Woodburn Hall.” Collection also includes recordings of panels, meetings, speeches, or forums, as well as recordings collected by the Commission for educational purposes. Access level: Largely IU-only due to lack of releases from speakers, though some are because they are non-IU created content. Two recordings related to rape and campus safety have been made available Worldwide. If you are outside IU, see the collection finding aid for fuller description of the recordings that are not available and contact us for access requests.
  • Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics & American Institutions recordings (100 items): These are absolute gems. The items are primarily recordings of television programs IU’s Poynter Center created from the 1970s-1990s, including series such as “The Citizen and the News,” “A Poynter Center Report,” “Citizen & Science,” “Poynter Interviews on American Institutions” and “Conversations on America.” Each episode brought in outside politicians and reporters such as Lee Hamilton, then-Congressman Andrew Young, Jr. (went on to become the first African American US ambassador to the UN, later served as Atlanta’s mayor), and well-known journalist David Halberstam. Lots of focus on Vietnam, loss of public trust, politics and politicians, and how news is reported and how it helps form public opinion. Also included are campus lectures. Access level: Worldwide
  • Russian and East European Institute recordings (383 items): Consists largely of lectures spanning the 1960s-1990s, from both campus visitors and IU faculty. All audio. Local names you might recognize include Alex Rabinowitch, Charles Jelavich, and Charles Bonser.  Access level: IU, but descriptions can be found via the finding aid (see the “Programs” series); contact us for access!
  • Union Board recordings (291 items): “Live from Bloomington” albums, Dunn Meadow concerts, Dance Marathon recordings, Model UN events, and UB sponsored lectures and visitors, including Spike Lee, Bobby Knight, and June Reinisch. Access level: IU only, but we have Union Board records related to a lot of these events. We plan to do some research to see what kind of paperwork/releases we may have. In the meantime, see the descriptions in the Audiovisual series of the finding aid and let us know if you would like to access anything!
  • Allen Grimshaw recordings (116 items): Dr. Grimshaw was a Professor of Sociology at IU from 1959-1994. There are recordings related or used for his research, which focused heavily on sociolinguistics and how different disciplines studied the same speech event. Also includes classroom lectures. Access level: Mix of worldwide (classroom lectures), IU only (collected recordings), and Restricted (interviews with children, dissertation defense). Descriptions of the media can be found on his collection finding aid; contact us if you are outside IU and spot something you would like to see!

    Screen capture from Grimshaw recording of Soviet and American military personnel roundtable on nuclear disarmament.
    Screen capture from Grimshaw recording of Soviet and American military personnel roundtable on nuclear disarmament.

We have also located and pushed a few recordings in response to requests, all have Worldwide access:

In progress:

And that’s your MDPI update for the summer! Please let us know if you have any questions and definitely spend some time checking out the wonderful resources to be found in Media Collections Online! It’s pretty amazing what we have access to here at Indiana University. And as always, please let us know if you have any questions!

Look for the next update in a few months!

Honors H228: Archival Storytelling – Part 5

Fall 2018 the University Archives partnered with Media School professor emeritus Ron Osgood and his new Honors Course Archival Storytelling. His students spent several class sessions in the Archives researching a topic of their choice and crafting a blog post for inclusion here! Some students chose to provide overviews of collections while others dove into specific bits of IU Bloomington history, but all seemed to enjoy the experience. We’ll be sharing these posts in groups over the next few weeks. In order to ensure the student’s voices are heard, Archives staff did minimal editing on these pieces.

This is the last entry, so many thanks to Prof. Osgood and his class for these great pieces!

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The History of Television at IU by Michelle Stallman and Alyssa Woolard

Even though television is an everyday part of life now, it has not always there to provide us with entertainment, inform us with news updates, and enlighten us with educational programming. Today, a student in the Indiana University Media School has the option to study a variety of media subjects, including not only the business of television, but also how to create television programs. Yet before we had the structure we have now, the Media School underwent numerous changes throughout its lifetime. The Department of Journalism, created in 1911, was the foundation of media studies at Indiana University, but it wasn’t until 1945, when the Department of Radio was founded, that studying newer forms of mass communication, specifically television, had a place in the curriculum at IU.

During the 1940s, television broadcasting was a new form of mass communication. Throughout this decade, only a handful of American households owned a television set, as they were very expensive, and therefore inaccessible, especially during wartime. In addition, there were not very many television networks for people to watch, and in many communities, there were no network signals that could reach them.
For almost the entirety of the 1940s, Bloomington did not have a local network. This changed on November 11th, 1949, when the city of Bloomington first broadcast WTTV. It was the second network in Indiana, with the only precedent being WFBM-TV (now known as WRTV) starting their broadcast in May of 1949, only four months prior. In its early years, WTTV operated as an NBC affiliate station before becoming an independent station in 1957. It has since gone through a number of affiliate changes, but it currently operates with CBS in the Indianapolis area, despite still being licensed to Bloomington.

As television rose in popularity and became more accessible to the general public in the early 1950s, people began to develop strong opinions and beliefs when it came to watching it. During these early days of television, limited access to content meant that television viewers did not have any control over what they watched, as seen in this letter to the editor from an Indiana newspaper. An Indianapolis resident describes his disdain with the programming available through WFBM-TV, which was, at that point in time, the only network available in the city. The writer describes often becoming bored with his television, turning to his radio for entertainment instead. This lack of programming meant that there was room for many more networks to be established so that viewers could have more variety and options when looking for entertainment, news, or education.

Indianapolis Times, “Television, 1944-1953,” Collection C104.12

In an Indianapolis Times article from this period, a survey is summarized which asked television viewers how they pass the time during the commercial breaks of their favorite television programs. A common answer for women at the time was to do the dishes, while many men opted to take showers during the breaks.  Other answers varied from talking with family members to reading. It seemed that only one person answered that they liked to watch the commercials. A common disdain for commercials may go back further than we think.

All of this increased interest in television as its popularity rose meant that this new form of media needed to be studied so that students could harness its power. Indiana University, specifically, was interested in not only the commercial uses for a television studio, but also the educational uses. For a number of years, members of IU’s staff championed for the addition of Television to the Department of Radio, only to be turned down at every corner. However, the university’s decision against adding a television curriculum was not a lack of importance on the subject, but rather a lack of funds.

“Television Allocations, 1950-1951,” Collection C104.12

During a TV hearing in 1950, Herman B Wells, then the president of Indiana University, said on the matter: “So far the University’s budget has been very modest as compared to the cost of television facilities and equipment. We look forward to the time when, besides cooperating with commercial stations, Indiana University and other educational institutions may have their own educational television facilities.” In 1953, this dream for a TV department in the university became a reality. IU set aside $75,000 for the purpose of adding television to the Department of Radio, more than $49,000 of which was allocated solely to buy television equipment.

A likely contribution to the university finally accepting a television addition was their previous usage of television for educational purposes.  Starting in 1954, classes were offered via television. Instead of having to physically show up to class, students could use their televisions to watch lectures and take courses remotely, much like how online classes are taken today.  These programs were produced in the television studios at IU and were broadcast through Bloomington’s network, WTTV. The university used this technology to allow for larger class sizes by televising a lecture to other halls on campus. Because of this, a wider variety of courses were offered each semester through television, from English, to First Aid, to Art Appreciation.

“Recording Class,” 1961. IU Archives P0072232

With the introduction of television to the curriculum at the newly dubbed Department of Radio and Television, a number of different courses were developed that handled a variety of television-related subjects. Many of the courses offered in the late 1950s bear a strong resemblance to the courses current Media School students take. There were some classes that worked with television on a more foundational level, like “Television Production” and “Introduction to Radio and Television I”, while others dove into more specific realms of the TV world, like “Educational Writing for Radio and Television” and “Reporting and Newswriting for Radio and Television I”.

One such course was “Utilization of Television Films”, taught by William H. Kroll in the late 1950s. The idea behind the course was to teach both the theory and practice of making and using films for television. Kroll’s class taught the fundamental principles, production, and programming of films for television. Students learned in detail about topics like how to shoot and edit film, understanding copyright laws, and principles of film and television. Many of the points outlined in the syllabus resemble subjects taught in modern courses like “Introduction to Production Techniques and Practice,” a course that students can take now in the Media School to learn more about studio and field work for television. Even the activities resemble those completed in current courses.

Students tested their skills in writing narrations for newsreels and commercials, and they wrote essays about topics like copyright law. In the laboratory section of the class, students were able to practice shooting and processing a variety of films, like for a short film and for a news event. While how and where we consume television may have changed, many of the principles taught have remained the same.

Today, the Media School encapsulates a variety of subjects, including journalism, game design, production, and advertising, just to name a few. As the number of mass media forms has grown, so has Indiana University’s Media School. Originally just the Department of Journalism, the college grew to incorporate radio, television, film, video games, and digital media.

Although new forms of media have arisen, television continues to be a vital part of our culture today. Teachers continue to show educational films during classes, and television remains dominant in providing news to the people. However, as technology has advanced, distance learning has changed. Today, online courses are used to learn at home instead of television courses, but that does not change the impact and influence that they had over the education of today. While the television studios used by Media School students today may look a lot different than the ones used in the 1950s, they remain steadfast in the teaching and application of many of the same principles.

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The Eggshell Press by Ethan Fields

When it comes to American History, there are very few decades that saw a cultural, political and social revolution equivalent to that of the 1960s. During this time period, civil and social unrest that had been brewing for years finally boiled over into all aspects of American life. From the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War, to music, the counterculture and political demonstrations, our nation was in the middle of a major shift that created ripples we still feel and see today. Almost all, if not every town and city in America felt the effects of the changes occurring in the 1960s, and Bloomington, Indiana was no different. As a college town, many demonstrations and rallies were taking place that protested the injustices our nation had were/had been promoting such as the Vietnam War, corrupt politicians/policies and systematic racism. And thanks to a single mimeograph machine, the people’s messages were able to be spread across campus and the town of Bloomington.

This mimeograph machine went by the name of the Eggshell Press and was active from the fall of 1967 to August of 1968. Residing in a spare bedroom belonging to Carol B. Chittenden and her husband, this machine printed everything from flyers to memorandums that were passed out during and after vigils, marches, demonstrations and rallies. It is interesting to note that the machine got its name when people suggested that the materials being printed off should be copyrighted. In order to copyright the materials, though, a publisher was mandatory and so the machine and organization became known as the Eggshell Press. This organization was very special and unique in the sense that no single group was responsible for or owned the machine. Instead, student groups used the machines when they had a message they wanted to get out so their voices could be heard. Examples of issues the Eggshell Press addressed include the Vietnam War, draft resistance, the assassination of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., and other major cultural events that occurred during this time period.

As evident from the subject matter being printed, a majority of the student groups using the machine could be considered part of the “New Left.” But while this is the case, there are two distinct “series” that were printed by the Eggshell Press during its lifespan. The first series, now referred to as “Organizations”, consisted of publications made by student run organizations at Indiana University such as the Students for Democratic Society, the Committee to End the War in Vietnam and the Progressive Reform Party. These organizations produced materials that voiced liberal views on several issues that were occurring in the United States during the mid to late 60’s, such as the ones listed above. A second series, which is now referred to as “Subjects”, contains materials that discussed topics such as the ones listed above along with the Dow Recruitment demonstration and James Retherford, who was once the editor-in-chief of an underground student newspaper known as The Spectator. All of these topics had a “New Left”/liberal perspective as well with the “Subjects” series being more information based than the “Organizations” series. This is because the materials printed during this series not only touched upon important social movements that were occurring at the time, but other “miscellaneous” events that were not related to protests or any other major movements. The documents recorded under “miscellaneous” reveal and discuss subjects such as financial transactions and a graduate student petition to President Stahr.

All in all, the history of the Eggshell press is fascinating. To me, it makes sense and fits right in with the social movement that was occurring at the time. In a decade where citizens of the United States were beginning to fully realize how much power and impact they had when it came to changing American society and politics, the Eggshell press served a great purpose and allowed Indiana University students to voice their concerns and ideas. One of my favorite publications from this collection can be found in the “Organizations” series and is called Committee to End the War in Vietnam, 1967-1968. In this group of publications, there are several pieces regarding resisting the draft, President Lyndon B. Johnson, and the promotion of peace and love. Out of these, I found myself drawn to the leaflet that discussed resisting the Vietnam draft. The thing that drew me towards this specific print is that it points out what rights you have as a citizen and student and how they apply to the draft. For example, in the leaflet, it has lines such as “YOU’RE STILL A CIVILIAN WHILE YOU ARE IN THIS BUILDING. YOU ARE UNDER CIVIL LAW UNTIL YOU ARE INDUCTED INTO THE ARMY. Don’t let the military push you around; make them treat you with respect. You are not machines under their command” and “YOU CAN STAND UP LIKE A MAN AND SAY NO TO THE WAR MACHINE. Why join the military? Why kill in Vietnam? RESIST THE DRAFT.” These lines stuck out to me because of how direct and serious they were presented. It made me realize how serious of a matter this issue was to students, especially the ones who were part of the Committee to End the War in Vietnam at the time. It also forced me to consider how widespread this opinion on the Vietnam War and the draft was across the country. Because not only were students on IU’s campus protesting this event, celebrities and athletes such as Mohammad Ali were as well. And even though it meant risking your reputation and life as a free citizen, they were willing to put it all on the line in order to stand up for what they believed in.

Due to the fact that we, as a nation, are currently in a period of strong division and opposition, the Eggshell press was something I could relate to. Even though the issues they are covering and promoting are not the same, there are a lot of parallels to what we are seeing and experiencing today. In the end, the Eggshell represents what we, as both students and citizens, have the power and right to do as Americans. We deserve to have our voice heard and if we try hard enough, it will be.

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Martha Vicinus, Women’s Studies, and 1970s Feminism by Meredith May

Almost every college student can say they have heard of a gender/women’s studies course, or that they have met a gender/women’s studies major. This has not always been the case, of course. At Indiana University in particular, women’s studies became a part of the content offered in the year 1973. A woman named Martha Vicinus was a faculty member from within the English department, and she was integral in aiding the development and popularity of these courses. Upon examining the Martha Vicinus papers available at the University Archives, it becomes evident that there was an extreme amount of dedication of herself and other faculty members to create courses and education surrounding women, their history, great works, and the problems they faced in that day in age.

Martha and her colleagues not only worked to offer classes at Indiana University relative to women’s studies, but they also hosted the Midwest Women’s Studies Conference and something they called “Brown Bag Luncheon Discussions”. These discussions allowed for presentations of information relative to Women’s Studies and beyond over a light lunch. The plan for one such event is as follows “Judith Davis of SPEA will present information on ‘How to Get a Job.’ Ms. Davis, who conducted an earlier luncheon discussion on job discrimination, will talk about such problems as writing resumés, interviewing for jobs, and finding a job that fits one’s interests. She will also discuss assertiveness training techniques which have been developed to simulate job interview situations and to teach the job applicant how to present her/himself in the most positive possible manner.” As evident with this quote from a paper titled News From Women’s Studies, the luncheons were not only directed at and about women, they were also inclusive of men.

They regularly met in a group they called the “Women’s Studies Coordinating Committee”, where they planned and discussed possible events and programming that they would sponsor on campus. The committee came together nearly every week, and members held regular correspondence with one another. One document alludes to their being approximately 13 members in the period from 1974-75, Martha being one of them. This committee was responsible for the aforementioned Midwest Women’s Studies Conference, and thus organized the panels, workshops, and “nuts and bolts” of the occasion. They also were the sponsor and coordinators behind the Brown Bag Luncheons.

The conference was held on April 4th, 5th, and 6th in 1975. It offered seminars on starting women’s studies programs, classroom techniques and curriculum, films, panels and much more. These took place in Ballantine Hall and Woodburn, beginning at 8:30PM on Friday and ending at 4:00 PM Sunday, making it a weekend chock full of content. The committee made every possible effort to allow women to attend, making available some limited free housing for the conference, but also providing information on hotels and restaurants. The registration materials provided pricing for hotel rooms in Bloomington and estimated cab fares from Indianapolis to Bloomington, as well as the likely cost to rent a car. They even went so far as to have a day care available that was at no additional cost as it was built into the registration fee.

Similarly, the women’s studies content offered to students for credit on campus was incredible and varied. In the fall of 1975, there were approximately 22 courses “devoted to the study of women” available to students at Indiana University. These came from many different departments, from Forensic Studies to English. Examples of these courses include “Feminism and Morality”, “Clothing and Culture”, and “Sociology of Family Systems”. The content of the offered classes emphasized representation of women in all fields, and included information on their roles in history, the arts, and the family. Some of the courses had a greater focus on gender and sex itself rather than just the actions and depictions of women. A year prior, in 1974, the program began to offer grants to both students and faculty in amounts ranging from $25 to $500, which were able to be spent towards additions to the Women’s Studies program or relative research.

The 1970s can be and are credited with the rise of feminism. The efforts by Martha Vicinus and the faculty that worked to expand collegiate education to be inclusive of women in the 1970s are a remarkable implementation of the ideology of the feminist movement and equality of the sexes. The women involved with these projects created an atmosphere on campus that can be credited with keeping up with the times; as feminism and a focus on women and their worth became a part of counter culture in the United States, it did the same on Indiana University’s campus. Arguably, Indiana University took this counter-culture a step further by having it be established and cultivated by faculty, making it less a part of counter-culture and more-so a part of the culture on campus as whole.

This culture of feminism continues on campus today with many groups on campus advocating for feminist beliefs or in the name of feminism itself. Today, nearly 45 years after the women’s studies office came into existence, Indiana University Bloomington offers a Bachelor of Art Degree in Gender Studies, as well as a Master of arts and a Philosophical Doctorate in Gender Studies. It likewise offers minors in these areas and has an entire department dedicated to it within the College of Arts and Sciences. Gender studies envelops curriculum regarding women’s studies, and is described by the department as “ focuse[d] on the complex interrelationships between sexed bodies, gendered identities, and sexualities through diverse methodologies and far-ranging institutional and interpersonal locations.” Thus the current program serves and surpasses the intent of Martha and her colleagues.

The Indiana University Archives located in Wells Library holds the Martha Vicinus papers, which include details surrounding the Women’s Studies program at Indiana University and Midwest Women’s Studies Program, in addition to papers and correspondence on other Women’s Movement and union efforts within Bloomington and Indiana obtained by Martha Vicinus and her family.