New! IU Vice President and Chancellor’s records, 1963-1977

This is our last post from Heather, as she has moved on to the Kentucky Historical Society, where she serves as the Kentucky Folklife Project Archivist! Congratulations, Heather!

Chancellor Byrum E. Carter on the I.U. campus

When completing the final arrangement of Vice President and Chancellor’s records, I got a glimpse of what it was like at I.U. during the 1960s and 1970s. During this time Byrum Carter was working his way up the administrative ladder through hard work and determination. Carter was Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences from 1966-1969 and in July of 1969 following a large-scale reorganization, Carter was named Chancellor of the I.U. Bloomington campus by the Board of Trustees. During his time as Chancellor, there was great political unrest and large-scale demonstrations at I.U., as elsewhere throughout the country.

While sifting through the collection I came across information on a student protest against General Electric and related materials on the Vietnam War. On Wednesday February 18, 1970 a debate was scheduled in Woodburn 100 by the Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam,


“Come prepared to question both the recruiter and the Chancellor.  If the recruiter chooses to remain on campus Thursday, we shall rally outside Ballantine on the Free Student Commons and march over to the Business Building where he will be holding interviews to discuss the role of GE in the Vietnam War” (demonstration was Thursday, February 19, 1970).  According to the flyer, GE received over $1.6 billion in Defense Department contracts during the fiscal year of 1969. An open letter to Chancellor Carter and the General Electric Corporation was also written by the student group calling out I.U. for allowing a “War Machine” to recruit on campus. The letter states,

“The GE recruiter on campus functions as an agent who channels students into the War Machine. By allowing war-related industries on campus, this university is giving visible support to their activities. The college campus is not a place where war should be promoted (if indeed there is such a place anywhere). Colleges cannot remain “neutral” because by doing so, they are taking a stand in favor of the status quo. They must take a stand AGAINST poverty, against racism and against war. As long as they are contributing to the continuation of the war in Vietnam and the American militarism and imperialism, they can take no such stand.”

Open letter to Chancellor Carter and the General Electric Corporation

Among the correspondence I also found a February 18, 1970 news release issued by Chancellor Carter regarding the G.E. strike and debate, stating “It is the policy of Indiana

News Release February 18, 1970

University to allow firms which conform to the requirements of the Equal Opportunity Act to conduct recruitment interviews on the campus if there are students who wish to be interviewed by such firms. There is no obligation on the part of the recruiters which requires them to engage in debate with students or faculty members who object to the practices of the particular company involved.”

On February 19, 1970 the IDS reported that, “Chancellor Byrum Carter said Wednesday afternoon that he would not debate with leftist students on the General Electric recruiting

Carter declines to debate

activities on campus and the post-G.E. strike situation in Bloomington.”

Among other things I discovered, campus and nation-wide demonstration fliers, a detailed list of precautions that should be taken in preparation for demonstration and multiple signed petitions. It appears that Carter played an active role in keeping the peace on campus while still allowing students to voice their opinions in a civil manner. However, as he advanced in the academic world his roles on campus slowly changed.

I was hoping to find some more information regarding the GE strike on campus, but after much time searching, I was unable to unearth any more information. If anyone was at I.U. during the Vietnam War and remembers the strike against General Electric I would love to learn more about it. To learn more about the role Chancellor Carter played at I.U., check out the collection’s finding aid and contact the Archives for access!

David Roland Smith

David Smith working on Sitting Printer, 1954. Photograph by the artist, taken at his workshop in Bolton Landing, New York.

I recently had the opportunity to delve a little deeper and learn about a famous sculptor who taught at Indiana University for the academic year of 1954-1955.  David Roland Smith came to I.U. to temporarily replace full-time Professor of Sculpture Robert Laurent who was on sabbatical serving as an artist-in-residence at the American Academy in Room and at the same time conceptualizing the early designs for IU’s Showalter Fountain.  In May 1954, Henry Hope, Director of the School of Fine Arts, confirmed the arrival of Smith and welcomed him to I.U.  During spring 1954 and fall of 1955 Smith taught multiple classes including First Year Sculpture I & II, Second Year Sculpture I & II, and a Graduate Sculpture course. Shortly after arriving in Bloomington, Smith rushed off to Venice, Italy as the United States delegate to the International Conference on Plastic Arts.  His sculptures were also included in the International Biennial Exhibition of Art which preceded the conference in Venice. 

Indiana Daily Student, September 28, 1954 - Smith travels to Italy for International Art conference

Now you may be wondering who is this Smith guy and how did he achieve this level of success?  Smith began his training at the Cleveland Art School while still in high school.  After graduation he studied at Ohio University for a year and quickly moved to Notre Dame University, where he would only stay for a short time. During summer breaks he spent his time working at the Studebaker automobile factory in South Bend, Indiana where he began honing his skills as a riveter as well as soldering and spot-welding.

David Smith, Construction in Rectangles, 1955, steel painted, 78 x 10 7/8 x 10 1/2 inches. Private collection. Created while Smith was at I.U.

By 1927 Smith ventured off to Washington, D.C. and then New York City where he met Dorothy Dehner, a young painter studying at the Art Students League (ASL). By December of that year they were married. From 1927-1932 Smith studied at the ASL under many artists including the American realist painter John Sloan, drawing instructor Kimon Nicolaides and Czech modernist painter Jan Matulka.

After more traveling and a variety of jobs, Smith and Dehner finally bought a fixer-upper in upstate NY where they would spend the next decade.  Along the way Smith continued to travel, meet more artists, and became very interested in combining constructed forms and paintings.  Smith continued to blossom as an artist by expanding and using a wide array of mediums including: wood, wire, stone, aluminum rods, soldered materials and – my favorite – “found” materials, all the while slowly building his art studio which became known as Terminal Iron Works.  By the time Smith arrived at I.U. in 1954 he had already produced a multitude of pieces and participated in a wide array of exhibits.

Indiana Daily Student, September 28, 1954 - Midwestern Art Conference held at I.U., October 28-30, 1954

Although Smith was only at I.U. for a brief time he continued to create art work and even participated in the Midwestern College Art Conference held at I.U. in October 1954.  Smith exhibited 13 sculptures and his 15 “medals for dishonor” at the conference.  His medals were cast before World War II and depict the horrors of war.  He said he got the idea for the “medals” from German war medallions that were used for propaganda during the war.  Check the medals out for yourself here.

After his time was up at I.U. he continued to travel the world and create, up until his tragic death in 1965.  To learn more about David Smith and his art work check out the David Smith Estate.

"David Smith: Cubes and Anarchy," installation view of exhibition, at Whitney Museum of American Art until January 8, 2011. Left to right: Tanktotem VII, 1960, Construction in Rectangles, and Circle IV, 1962 (all: painted steel). Photograph by Jerry L. Thompson

To see more of David Smith’s work in person you can visit the exhibition David Smith: Cubes and Anarchy, currently on view at the Whitney Musuem of American Art through January 8, 2012.

"David Smith: Cubes and Anarchy," installation view of exhibition, at Whitney Museum of American Art until January 8, 2012. Left to right: Cubi XXI, 1964, anc Cubi I, 1963 (both stainless steel). Photograph by Jerry L. Thompson.

Lynton K. Caldwell papers

 Indiana University’s Lynton K. Caldwell became known as the “grandfather of biopolitics,” “the father of the environmental impact statement,” and “one of the most influential people in the entire protection movement” (Indiana Alumni, May/June 1993, p.12). He devoted his life to researching and debating environmental science. Caldwell was an Arthur F. Bentley Professor Emeritus of Political Science and professor emeritus of public and environmental affairs at IU. He held the degree of Ph. B. (Bachelor of Philosophy, 1934) and Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy, 1943) from the University of Chicago, an M.A. (Master of Arts, 1938) from Harvard University, and an LLD (Doctor of Laws, Honorary, 1977) from Western Michigan University.

Caldwell began his teaching career at IU as an assistant professor of government at IU South Bend from 1939-1944. He returned to IU Bloomington in 1965 where he taught political science as well as public and environmental affairs until his retirement in 1984. He also served on the faculty of several other institutions of higher education including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Michigan and the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to his teaching career, Professor Caldwell held staff and consulting assignments for United States Senate, Congressional Research, and the United Nations, just to name a few.

Dr. Caldwell was a recognized authority on environmental policy. One of Caldwell’s major accomplishments was the origination the environmental impact statement in the 1969 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “[The] National Environmental Policy Act, was one of the first laws ever written that establishes a broad national framework for protecting our environment. NEPA’s basic policy is to assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that could significantly affect the environment.” The legislation was signed by President Nixon at the beginning of 1970. NEPA resulted in the establishment of, among other important environmental legislation, Earth Day, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Endangered Species Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Caldwell was recognized internationally as one of the early leaders in the study of environmental policy, law and administration, and his work influenced the course of national legislation in the environmental protection movement. He continued to play an active role in environmental affairs and was the catalyst for the establishment of the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University in 1972.

Caldwell was an avid researcher and writer from 1943-1993. His collection of papers held by the University Archives includes his dissertation, “Contributions to thought on Public Administration: Hamilton and Jefferson,” (1943); over books and collaborative works including: Environmental Policy, Law, and Administration: A Guide (1979), Biocracy: Public Policy and the Life Sciences (1987), The National Environmental Policy Act: An Agenda for the Future (1998) and International Environmental Policy: Emergence and Dimensions (1984), which received the Sprout Award from the International Studies Association in 1985.

Dr. Caldwell passed away in 2006.

Interested in learning more about Lynton Caldwell or would like to access his collection? Contact the Archives!

Seminary Square

Seminary Building, 1st Building on grounds

Last Friday marked the rededication of Seminary Square Park (and the bombshell by former state historical marker manager Jeremy Hackerd that his research uncovered the fact that IU classes began in 1825, not 1824, as previously thought!).

What do you know about Seminary Square?

Before becoming a park in October of 1996, the site was home to the first seminary building – yes, Indiana University began as a Seminary, but was not a religious institution. Rather, at the time of establishment, institutions of higher education were oftentimes called seminaries. A committee of men was created to select the land in which the Seminary would be located.  Five of the men traveled to Bloomington to scout out the perfect piece of land.  The land was “about one quarter of a mile due South of Bloomington on a beautiful eminence and convenient to an excellent spring of water, the only one on the section selected that could with convenience answer the purpose of the Seminary.” (Indiana University Alumni Quarterly, 1924, p.382)  It was not uncommon in those days for springs of water to be used to determine the proximity of towns and buildings and the spring which set the stage for the Seminary and the future Indiana University became known as the “Lowe Spring,” named after Trustee William M. Lowe (1820-1826, 1828). 

Authorization for the construction of the Seminary was passed in 1820. The building did not begin however, until April 17, 1822, and was not fully completed until the spring of 1824.  The Seminary opened the doors to its first class in 1825, with the tuition fees amounting to $2.50 a session. In 1828, the Indiana General Assembly renamed the school Indiana College, and again changed the name in 1838 to Indiana University.  In 1883, a devastating fire prompted officials to consider relocating the campus. After investigating several possibilities, it was determined the campus would be moved to Dunn’s Woods and the city purchased the old college site for its high school, where it remained until 1967.

In 1922, Indiana University celebrated 100 years of being an educational institution. During the ceremony a time capsule was buried with at least one known photograph (shown below) as well as other University items with instructions to open the capsule in 2022. Recently a patron inquired about this time capsule, wanting to know if the archives knew what other items the capsule held but I was unable to locate any information regarding the contents of the capsule.  If anyone does know what is in the time-capsule or any other information regarding the event, post your comments on the blog wall!

Dr. Bryan is shown above turning the first spade of earth for the placing of a tablet upon the plot which the old seminary building stood. This photograph was taken and sealed along with the other University valuables. (Indiana Alumnus, 5 August, 1922, p.7)

–Archivist in training



Student Orientation

My name is Heather S. and I have been interning at the University Archives for the last several weeks. For part of my internship I was asked to create a banner for student orientation using archival materials. (Check it out in the Wells Library lobby!)  Over the course of the last few weeks I have gone through lots of file folders relating to Freshman Orientation/Induction. Among them were several freshmen diaries from the early 1900s. It has been extremely fascinating reading what life was like at I.U. back then.  My favorite was that of Ralph Garriott from 1921. Garriott wrote not only about his studies, but also included small pieces about his day-to-day life, including when he woke up, where he dined and countless entries about his tennis matches. Another interesting entry I stumbled across was that of the 100th Anniversary of Indiana University, in which Ralph writes, “Today is the 100th birthday of the University, and as a result we had a vacation after the eight and nine oclock [sic] classes. I played some tennis with Morgan this morning.” I bet the students were very excited to have no classes the rest of the day; I know I would be.

Entry about IU's 100th Birthday from Ralph Garriott's Diary


Correspondence was also scattered among these files, such as students writing letters home to their parents explaining what was happening in their lives at the University. Although many of us use e-mail, Facebook, and Twitter to correspond, obviously none of this existed in 1921 when Garriott was in school.

Waiting in line to enroll in classes, 1941

Established in 1820, Indiana University has a long history of welcoming new students to Bloomington. With holdings of more than 17,000 cubic feet of records, including over 2 million photographic images and thousands of films, the Wells Lobby display highlights a small portion of the Indiana University Archives’ holdings about new student orientation and the move to Bloomington. Want to know more? Contact the Archives!

–Archivist in training