Indiana University and South African Divestment

Cover art, Born a Crime by Trevor Noah

Late this summer, I was contacted by colleagues in the Kelley School of Business. The Kelley Common Read book was going to be Trevor Noah’s Born a Crime – did the University Archives have anything that could bring Noah’s story closer to home?  

I knew a little bit about the movement to get Indiana University to divest from South African companies in the 1980s to protest apartheid, but I had never taken the time to dig into the whole story and was eager for this opportunity. What I learned was – oh my goodness, YES, we have a TON related to South African divestment, student protests, and the work of faculty and staff to move toward a more thoughtful and ethical investment strategy in South Africa.  

First, What is Apartheid? 

Simply put, apartheid was a system of institutionalized racism that was in place in South Africa for nearly 50 years from the late 1940s until the early 1990s. It put South Africa’s minority white population in power in every sense of the word. Segregation in every area of life was staunchly enforced; Black residents of the country were required to always carry an internal passport; the ethnicity of a person dictated where they could live, who they could marry, whether they could vote, where they could go to school, etc. Noah’s book provides readers with a glimpse of what it was like to grow up both under this kind of oppression and as “a crime” – the product of a Black mother and white father.  

Indiana University & Divestment: 1970s 

In Indiana University records from the late 1970s, we see evidence that students, staff, and faculty were really beginning to take notice of apartheid and South Africa, and they objected to Indiana University profiting from the brutality of the system through investments with companies that did work in the country. They added their voices to calls coming from throughout the U.S. to eliminate investments in South Africa, hopeful that loss of money would pressure its leaders to end minority rule.  

In a November 10, 1977, Indiana Daily Student article, reporter John Butwell dug deep into the work of three IU student groups working on the university’s and the IU Foundation’s divestment of more than $5.7 million in South African companies. (N.B. – the Foundation is separate from the University and serves as its fundraising arm.) The active groups included the Student Coalition Against Racism (SCAR), the Bloomington South Africa Committee, and the Black Christian Student Fellowship, though they had the support of several other student organizations on campus, including the Latin Alliance of Midwest America (ALMA). They worked together to collect signatures for a petition demanding IU’s divestment.  

Protestors with signs and one with a bullhorn. Caption says, "Chanting and marching, bundled against the cold, approximately 120 I.U. students marched in protest of I.U.'s investment in businesses with South Africa holdings. The amrch across campus ended at the Indiana Memorial Union where the board of trustees was meeting."
Image of protestors from February 6, 1978 IDS article “I.U. holdings in South Africa protested with demonstration.”

The response at the time, according to Butwell’s article, was that IU officials felt that their divestment would have little effect on the companies’ policies, given how small their investments were in the grand scheme of things. Even IU’s beloved Herman Wells, then University Chancellor but also a member of the IUF investment committee, told Butwell that before he considered divestment, he’d want to know more about the extent of U.S. companies’ holdings in South Africa, saying, “I read somewhere that many companies listed as being in South Africa don’t actually manufacture there, but just sell small amounts of goods there.” (That was indeed the case, Butwell’s research showed.) 

But also, some argued, it was possible these U.S. companies could make headway in undermining apartheid by adhering to what was known as the Sullivan Statement or Sullivan Principles, developed in 1977 by U.S. Civil Rights leader and General Motors board member Reverend Leon Sullivan. The Sullivan Statement was a pledge for corporate responsibility – for companies to use nondiscriminatory employment practices, to train Blacks for more highly skilled jobs and to improve Black workers’ health, housing, education, recreation and transportation facilities. (In 1999, Sullivan helped unveil the updated and expanded corporate code of conduct known as the “Global Sullivan Principles.”). Butwell’s article shared that of the 40 South African companies with which IU and the IUF invested, only six had signed the statement as of April 1977. Response from the IU Board of Trustees was mixed, with some members saying yes, social effects of IU investments should be considered, but ultimately their obligation to IU should come first. Trustee Carolyn Gutman, however, told Butwell, “There are always many thousands of kinds of investments to make – it seems we could invest in something which did not have serious political ramifications, even if the (political) investment had an amazingly large return.”  

The trustees had an opportunity to learn, as members of the University Faculty Council organized a seminar for the purpose of educating them about apartheid in the spring of 1978. The information presented at the seminar must have been compelling (perhaps coupled with campus protests and continued pressure by the IU community), as by June of that year, the trustees had approved a new policy surrounding investments in countries doing business in South Africa. The policy, however, fell short of outright divestment. Rather, it recognized the concerns of the University community and affirmed that the University would place pressure on corporations to adopt a corporate code of conduct (whether it be the Sullivan Statement, the European Economic Community codes of conduct or the equivalent). If companies failed to do so, IU would then divest and make no further investments in the corporation until such steps were taken.  

So progress, but the IU community continued to keep an eye on the situation in South Africa and maintain pressure on university leaders.  

Indiana University & Divestment: 1980s 

In 1985, campus activity regarding South Africa and apartheid made headlines again as the IU Student Association (predecessor to IU Student Government) adopted a resolution denouncing apartheid and called upon IU to once again reconsider its investments. Additionally, IUSA asked that the University advise the federal government of IUSA’s concerns and urge lawmakers to end all US involvement in South Africa until apartheid ended. 

Behind O'Meara and Bareikis is a sign that says "Forum on Investment Options."
Screen capture from forum video. Patrick O’Meara on left, Robert Bareikis (?) just behind him

One result from the resolution was an educational forum about apartheid that once again focused on educating IU’s trustees about the issues. Organization of the forum largely fell to Professors Robert Bareikis (Germanic Studies) and Patrick O’Meara (African Studies) – the latter born and raised in South Africa until the 1960s. Together with student leaders and other faculty, they planned the day long “Investment Responsibilities in South Africa: A forum for The Indiana University Board of Trustees,” held September 20, 1985. It was broadcast throughout the Indiana University system and at IU Bloomington, it could also be watched on the big screen at the IU Auditorium. Speakers for the day included South Africans Dumisani Kumalo and Bishop Desmond Tutu (via telephone), Ford Motor Company’s William Broderick, Congressman and House Subcommittee on Africa Chair Howard Wolpe and more. At the forum, 1984’s Nobel Peace Prize recipient Bishop Tutu emphasized the importance and necessity of outside governments to help end apartheid, telling the IU audience, “I myself believe that our last chance for reasonably peaceful change in South Africa will lie in the attitude and action of the international community.”  

COOL RESOURCE ALERT! Through the efforts of IU’s Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative, tapes of this event have been digitized and are freely available in Media Collections Online!  

Faculty and student groups provided university administrators with recommendations on how to move forward with South Africa but there was still a great deal of concern from IU’s leaders about balancing the university’s fiduciary responsibilities with moral responsibilities. Trustee Joseph Black told IDS reporter Leah Lorber, “I’m terrified about divesting from Eli Lilly. They’ve given us close to $50 million for (IU-Purdue University at Indianapolis) in the last 10 years. You stop and think all that Lilly’s done for us….If I were a corporate executive in these corporations, I would think ‘Indiana doesn’t want us around.’” (IDS, “Divestment could affect recruiting, scholarships,” October 29, 1985) 

At their November 1, 1985 meeting, the Board of Trustees once again voted against total divestment of South African companies. Instead, in an updated policy, they laid out a list of expectations for companies who were required to respond through submission of a written acknowledgement of compliance. The IU Treasurer was charged with reviewing the acknowledgements and providing the Investment Committee with recommendations regarding investment or divestment.   

Shantytown in Dunn Meadow. Photo by Garrett Ewald of the Indiana Daily Student, April 13, 1986. IU Archives P0029022

Students continued to keep an eye on the University’s work in this area, and in April 1986, a group of about forty students organized in Dunn Meadow and began to erect shanties. The shanties, according to IDS reporter Melinda Stevenson, were “meant to resemble the bantustans in which the apartheid system forces many South African blacks to live.” (IDS, “Few witness shanty dismantling,” December 2, 1986). Throughout the month, students staged protests and erected additional shanties. When Little 500 weekend came around, protestors and the IUSA distributed yellow armbands, asking students to wear them throughout the weekend to raise awareness of apartheid. Despite vandalism and threats, protestors remained in the Dunn Meadow “Shantytown” through the school year, summer, and into the next fall semester. The Assembly Ground Advisory Committee, formed by IU’s Dean of Students Michael Gordon, recommended the University allow protestors to remain but in December, the protestors begin disassembling the Shantytown with plans to move their protest efforts indoors through a series of debates at the residence halls.  

In the following years, campus groups continued their work to encourage the trustees to take stronger actions. In April 1989, the IUSA and the IU Anti-Apartheid Committee submitted a “Report to the Indiana University Trustees on the Issue of Divestment from South Africa.” The report outlined the problems with IU’s policy on South Africa, gave a timeline of significant events in South Africa from 1986-1988, and provided excerpts of South African policies of fellow Big Ten universities, which indicated several had already moved to complete divestment while others were well on their way.  

And into the 1990s 

Art shows Black woman with head covering and dollar sign behind her.
Art from IDS “Point/Counterpoint” column, Indiana Daily Student, February 16, 1990.

In a February 16, 1990 “Point/Counterpoint” column for the IDS, trustee Harry Gonso explained the steps the trustees had taken to that point to hear arguments from both sides of divestment. He wrote that the board wanted to speak out against apartheid and that it indeed “justified the adjustment of the normal investment criteria.” But to pull completely out would have meant they had spoken out only once; by moving forward with companies, they could communicate to these U.S. companies “that as one of the finest universities in the world, we cared about their social responsibility, we expected them to combat racism in South Africa, and we wanted reports as to their activities in South Africa…had we divested or disinvested, we would have spoken just once saying, in effect, that we were against apartheid and we wanted to contribute to the dismantling of U.S. involvement in South Africa (never mind that the vacuum would be immediately filled by investors from Japan, Germany and elsewhere). Thereafter, having said that, our ability as a shareholder to communicate our opinions and values would have been gone.” 

In his “Counterpoint” article, student Joe Kulbeth, chairperson for IUSA’s Anti-Apartheid Committee, recognized that IU had made progress. In 1982, it had $5 million invested in companies doing business in South Africa. At the time of writing, IU had reduced its investments to under $900,000 in eight companies (total university investments were approximately $55 million). But he called for IU to finish its work and direct the money elsewhere. 

Gonso and the trustees were once again listening, it seems. In April he shared the draft of a new trustees policy with IUSA President Jerry Lee Knight. The policy addressed both direct and indirect investments and how they would approach each of these. For direct investments, IU would not only ensure that companies had a statement of principle for working in South Africa but also that the product or service produced by the company would benefit ALL people of South Africa. Further, the products could only be “benign” in nature – no automobiles, trucks, guns, ammunition or similar products that could be used by the South African military. Knight, however, told the IDS that he thought the new policy was possibly weaker than the 1985 policy, noting “I’m almost afraid that it’ll open loop holes that trustees in the future can take advantage of.” (IDS, “IU rethinks apartheid investment,” May 5, 1990). The policy went forward and was approved at the June 9, 1990 Board of Trustees meeting. While the students may have continued to have misgivings, the Indianapolis Business Journal held up IU’s new policy as “worth imitating.” (IBJ, “IU’s new investment policy re: South Africa is worth imitating,” May 14-20, 1990) 

The End of Apartheid 

Nelson Mandela, imprisoned in South Africa in 1962 for his role in attempting to overthrow the apartheid government, was released in 1990 amid growing domestic and international pressure to release him. It was one of the first steps taken by South African President Frederik Willem de Klerk to begin dismantling the system of apartheid in his country. There were several years of negotiations, but apartheid officially came to an end in 1994 with Mandela, representing the African National Congress, elected South Africa’s new president.  

In 2013, the Board of Trustees voted to revoke and rescind several policies that were no longer relevant to or affecting the University, which included the 1985 “Policy on Investments in Corporations Which Have Business Operation in South Africa” as well as its 1990 amendment.  

This is obviously a very broad overview of a very complicated subject that included many other players and important events on campus. As I worked with our Kelley colleagues, I scanned a lot of the documents I came across for their use in Kelley events, including those cited in this post. They are freely available in a OneDrive folder at https://go.iu.edu/43Vq. File names include the collection or accession number, along with the folder title, when applicable. Several items had been previously digitized, such as the IUSA resolutions and Bloomington Faculty Council documents and can be found in a separate folder. As always, please do reach out with any questions or if you would like to view any of these materials in person!  

Celebrating LGBTQ+ Voices of Indiana University

Oral histories from the IU LGBTQ+ community play an important role in documenting the university’s historical record, while amplifying the voices that are so often silenced and under-documented in our history. The oral history clips shared in this blog are just four of the many voices in the IU LGBTQ+ community within the IU Bicentennial Oral History Project. You can search and listen to many more oral histories and read their transcripts by visiting oralhistory.iu.edu.

Gary Shoulders graduated from Indiana University in 2007 with a B.S. from the School of Informatics. He shares his story of coming out to his friends while attending IU in the following clip:

Bruce Smail is an IU alumnnus, as well as the Interim Director of the LGBTQ+ Culture Center and the Special Assistant to the VP of Diversity, Equity, and Multicultural Affairs at Indiana University. Bruce shares his memories of being involved in the LGBTQ+ Culture Center during his student years at IU here:

Doug Bauder is the former founding Director of the LGBTQ+ Culture Center at Indiana University. Doug remembers the founding of the first GLBT Student Center at IU and the impact it had in the following clip:

Mara Bernstein is an IU alumna and the Advancement Associate for the IU Libraries. Mara speaks about her involvement with the IU LGBTQ+ Alumni Association and the IU Queer Philanthropy Circle here:

If you would like to share your story or obtain transcripts of the oral history clips in this post, please contact Kristin Leaman at kbleaman@indiana.edu.

MEZCLA: Making Little 500 History

Sketch of Mezcla team logo.

I processed a new accession for the Indiana University Latino Cultural Center (La Casa) records, which doubled the size of the original collection. Since this new accession was much larger in size and scope than the present collection, I was able to rework and alter the entire collection that resulted in the formation of new series, such as Administrative, Correspondence, and Publications,  and consolidating old series to new reimagined ones, such as Associations, Events, Subject Files, and General Files. The newly updated collection now has eight boxes total, and it is my hope that it is better presented for researchers, students, and community members who have an interest in the Latino community in Bloomington and at Indiana University. While processing this collection, I came across a folder titled MEZCLA, as well as several sketches of a bicycle with Mezcla stylized across the top, and I was curious to learn what this was exactly. After looking through the folder and searching online, I learned that Mezcla is a Little 500 team, the first Latino Little 500 team to be exact. A year ago, I had the opportunity to look through and start processing the scrapbooks for the IU Student Foundation Little 500 event, so seeing this team, Mezcla, mentioned in the Latino Cultural Center records really stood out to me. Since the Little 500 race is happening again, I thought it would be fitting to highlight a piece of Little 500 history.

Since 1951, the Little 500 bicycle race has been a treasured student and university event and has seen many changes over the past 70 years. Originally, it was a male student dominated event but in 1988 the first women’s race was held. Starting out as a modest event where the bicycle race was the only attraction, in the decades that followed the Little 500 grew into a weeklong event of activities that included, at times, the Mini 500 tricycle race , concerts, golf tournaments, talent shows, fashion shows, and regattas. Over time, the event would also see historical firsts in terms of increasing the representation of underrepresented students and communities in Bloomington and at Indiana University.

Indiana Daily Student April 22, 1996 newspaper clipping featuring Jerry Gutièrrez.

In 1995, the formation of the first Latino team was a significant step in the diversification of the majority-white  Little 500. The event can be costly for teams without sponsorships, so various letters of sponsorship were sent out to companies starting in winter of 1995. Jerry Gutièrrez, a member of the first Latino team, drafted numerous letters asking for sponsorship well into the summer of the following year. Unfortunately, most companies’ responses were rejection letters, but that did not discourage history being made. Some of the original riders who participated in the first race and interested riders included Jerry Gutièrrez, Ben Abney, Derrick Espades, Gus Chavez, Sergio Magan̂a, and Erik Teter. The 1996 race, the 46th annual race, was the debut race of the Mezcla Little 500 team. The men’s team qualified in this race with a time of 02:41.53.1, with a placement in the 11th row. At the race, Mezcla placed 31st and completed a total of 176 out of 200 laps.

Indiana Daily Student April 17, 1996 newspaper clipping of the design for the Mezcla jersey.

In 1998 Mezcla became a student organization with the purpose of providing an avenue for Latino students to participate in the Little 500 race. For the next three years, Mezcla qualified and raced in the Little 500, with their best race in 1998, wherein they placed 12th and completed 195 out of 200 laps. After 2001, the men’s Mezcla team leading riders had all graduated, and it would not be until 2005 that the men’s Mezcla team would qualify again.

In 1997, a group of female students were ready to carry on the Mezcla legacy as the first women’s Latino Little 500 race team. That year the first women’s Mezcla team placed 23rd with a time of 01:11:08.889 and completed 93 out of 100 laps.

The Herald Times April 22, 2004 newspaper clipping featuring Anette Soto, Barbara Alvarado, and Liliana Cortez.

It was not until 2004 that the women’s Mezcla team would qualify again for the race, though the team would go on to compete in nine additional races through 2014, the last time they qualified. The riders from the 2004 team were Josefa Madrigal, Anette Soto, Liliana Cortez, Monica Reyes, Rosa Bonilla, and Barbara Alvarado. The women’s Mezcla team’s best race time wise was in 2005 with a time of 01:08:50, while their best race lap completion was in 2014 with 97 out of 100 laps completed, placing them 16th.

If not for the Coronavirus pandemic, the 2020 race would have been the 70th Men’s race and 33rd Women’s race. However, the race was rescheduled and is happening once again on Wednesday, May 26 in the Bill Armstrong Stadium.

For more on this piece of Indiana University history – and more – the Indiana University Latino Cultural Center records can be viewed by appointment with University Archives.

Advocating for support for student veterans – the American Veterans Committee Scrapbook

While the IU Archives remains closed to the public due to the COVID-19 crisis, I have been digging into the collections available digitally through Archives Online to discover and highlight some of the great artifacts the IU community can explore from the comfort of their homes. I came across a scrapbook put together by a veteran’s group for IU students that was active during and directly following WWII that allowed me a fascinating glimpse into veteran student issues.

The Second World War transformed life at Indiana University in many ways, and these transformations extended into the postwar time as many men came back to attend college and start the next chapter of their lives. Many organizations were established to help veterans make their transformation from soldier to civilian, including a newly formed progressive veterans committee called the American Veterans Committee (AVC), originally formed as an alternative option to what some considered the more conservative veterans groups like the American Legion. The American Veterans Committee, formed at the national level in 1943 and disbanded in 2008, pledged to support veterans of all races and creeds and was notably offering racially integrated committees across the country when other veterans groups were not. Their political agenda included petitioning the local and state government to start or support legislation related to improving veteran support in all facets of life and supporting advocate groups like the NAACP that fought for civil rights and racial equality.

Scrabook page for the 1946-47 school year which includes a resolution concerning AVC policies. The resolution reads: l. As progressive citizens we pledge our active support to any reforms which in our opinion broaden the benefits and security of all people. 2. As progressive citizens we pledge our ative support to help fight bigotry, prejudice, and discrimination against any minority group. 3. As progressive citzens we pledge our active support to fight against all organizations which menace the liberties of the people. 4. We do not identify ourselves with any party, nor do we place ourselves at any point on a political line from left to right. To determine our policy on any issue we will consider that issue and vote our descision in a democratic manner. 5. As student citizens of Indiana University we support the furtherance of academic freedom and building a yet better institution of higher knowledge. We pledge our aid to the University administration to improve in any manner possible the scholastic, and social program of the University.
American Veterans Committee’s Resolution concerning AVC policies for the 1946-1947 school year, AVC Scrapbook, 1946-1949.

The AVC Bloomington chapter offered support to veterans on IU’s campus and in the Bloomington community as a whole. The collection is fully digitized and includes one scrapbook that includes clips of newspaper, photographs, and chapter items from the years 1946-1949, and offers an interesting glimpse of what life was like for veteran students during these years right after WWII.

Black and white photograph of members of the AVC.
American Veterans Committee, from the 1946 Arbutus Yearbook, IU Archives P0034240

Like the national organization, Bloomington’s chapter was committed to supporting all veterans on campus and in the community, regardless of nationality, race, or religion. Their main policies included fighting bigotry, which included a push to bar Bloomington restaurants from discriminating against people of color. They were supporters of the Bloomington NAACP. In 1948, the organization wrote an op-ed to the Indiana Daily Student that outlined their support for national integration of all colleges and to end all college discrimination.

The Bloomington AVC also focused on the financial aspects of IU veterans’ lives. In 1947, the AVC compiled the GI Subsistence Survey that asked 1500 current student veterans about their finances and the support they receive from the government; based on their results, they asked the university and local and national politicians to increase veteran subsistence pay, arguing that veterans were paying more for housing and food than they should be.

Scan of a scrapbook page from the AVC
Results of the AVC’s Subsistence Survey with press clippings, AVC Scrapbook, 1946-1949.

The American Veterans Committee also hosted social and educational events on campus to support their initiatives. In 1947 the group hosted an Autumn Festival informal dance at the Indiana Memorial Union. The AVC also hosted speakers for their members and the general public, including history novelist Howard Fast, sports writer John R. Tunis, and the famed IU professor Dr. Alfred Kinsey right after his release of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male at an AVC meeting in 1948. It was one of the only public lectures he gave on campus after the release of the book.

The scrapbook is a fascinating glimpse into a few of the issues that student veterans faced as they returned from war, adjusted to life back home, attended university, and moved forward in their lives. Aspects of life that affected veterans as they transitioned back into society are deeply compelling to see from the student perspective. Check out the finding aid and the full scrapbook here!

H228 Creating Archival Stories #7

Mary Elizabeth Campbell by Karolina Sroka

Mary Elizabeth Campbell

Devoted, driven, and dauntless. These adjectives describe Mary Elizabeth Campbell’s persona perfectly. She devoted much of her life to make an influential impact on Indiana University. Mary’s driven personality propelled her to publish several original works which includes a popular favorite: Scandal Has Two Faces. Finally, Mary’s dauntless acts throughout her life include serving in World War II, confronting problems that faced professional and educated women, and teaching the first comparative literature course offered at Indiana University. 

Kokomo Tribune

Although Cambridge, Ohio was Mary’s birthplace, she had a connection with Bloomington early on in her life. When she was around thirteen years, Indiana University offered her father a position as a professor. As a result, her whole family moved to Bloomington. Just three years later, her father became a professor at Harvard. Nonetheless, IU remained a short-lived, yet inspiring experience and held a special place in Mary’s heart. In fact, after finishing school from Cambridge Latin School and Radcliffe, Mary became an English instructor at IU in 1927 and rose through the ranks, retiring as Professor Emeritus in 1973. Talk about devotion! Throughout her time as a faculty member, Mary took the time to advance her education at Yale, where she gained her PhD in the year 1938. As seen in the clipping from The Kokomo Tribune,  Mary along with other notable IU faculty members discussed an English literature series called British Men of Letters. Not only did Mary devote her time as an English professor at IU Bloomington, but she also participated in spreading her knowledge to a broader audience. 

Indianapolis Star

Mary made the most use of her time as a professor at Indiana. She always had a passion for writing and took it upon herself to publish something. In the year 1938, the same year she gained her PhD, Mary published her first book named Defoe’s First PoemThis publication focuses on Daniel Defoe, a writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and even spy who was seen as an early and passionate proponent of the English novel. Defoe must have been an inspiration for Mary as they share a passion for English literature and novels, and ultimately helped drive Mary to publish her own works. Actually, in 1943, she published yet another book called Scandal Has Two Faces, which sparked more popularity. This murder mystery came out before academic novels were considered popular, so it intrigued critics and scholars. Set in academia, this novel excited all ages with its clever humor and plot. The fictious story takes place on a college campus, making it even more enticing for students. It allowed them to engage and feel a part of the story. Even in the Hoosier Accent, as seen in the clipping, Mary receives much praise on her novel. This hopefulness ande ncouragement the article displays further fuels Mary’s drive for writing. There was a lot of positive feedback on the novel, and for some time Mary seriously considered writing a sequel to the mystery, but ultimately could not because of unplanned yet critical events. This goes to show how great of an impact Mary made on English literature at Indiana, mainly because of her driven personality.  

Shortly after the publication of her mystery novel Scandal Has Two Faces,  Mary took a year’s leave for the unplanned, yet critical event mentioned earlier. It was to serve and help in World War II. Mary specifically went to serve in Italy. There, she worked with the Overseas Hospital Service of the American Red Cross. In all of the hospital service units located in Italy, the nurses and medical teams worked long hours and their time and effort was very much appreciated. One article stated that many units had “periods when the patient load was heavy” (Merrick 40). Mary’s dauntless acts as a nurse and the whole experience impacted her views and thoughts of women, but specifically the importance of their duties. Thus, after returning to the United States in 1945 and Indiana University for the spring semester, she started to engage in the Indiana University Bulletin called “What Makes an Educated Woman.” As an editor, Mary tackled and addressed problems facing professional woman. What makes this so inspiring and daunting, is the fact that these issues were not relevant yet. Amidst all these events, when Mary was at Indiana University, she taught comparative literature, which was actually the first comparative literature course ever taught at IU. Because “literature was alive and exciting” for her and “she was able to communicate its vitality to her classes,” Mary had an innovative style of teaching (IU Bloomington Faculty Council). All of these daunting acts contribute to the moving life-story of Mary Campbell. 

Death certificate, which shows Campbell died as a result of lung cancer.

Mary Elizabeth Campbell passed away on February 21, 1985 at the Meadowood Retirement Community in Bloomington, Indiana, as seen on her death certificate. Mary retired as an IU professor after almost fifty years of teaching in 1973. No surprise when she received emeritus status by the university at that time. She never married, but instead lived an unselfish, courageous, and admirable life. Not only did she inspire and impact her own students, but also faculty across IU and the audience who read her publications. This can be seen not only through her connection to IU from an early age, but also her role as a professor, a writer, and a nurse. Mary Campbell’s devoted, driven, and dauntless personality will continue to live on and influence others not only at Indiana University, but across the United States.   

Bibliography 

“Archives Photograph Collection of Mary E. Campbell.” Indiana University Bloomington, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/archivesphotos/results/item.do?itemId=P0067323.  

“Daniel Defoe.” Poetry Foundation, Poetry Foundation, www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/daniel-defoe. 

“Indiana Death Certificate for Mary Campbell.” Ancestry.com, www.ancestrylibrary.com/imageviewer/collections/60716/images/44494_351913-00535?treeid=&personid=&hintid=&queryId=88f0b9ea827548f57ffb54872139d3db&usePUB=true&_phsrc=kXW1&_phstart=successSource&usePUBJs=true&pId=2793800.  

“The Indianapolis Star from Indianapolis, Indiana on October 27, 1943 · Page 12.” Newspapers.com, The Indianapolis Star, www.newspapers.com/newspage/104924129/.  

IU Bloomington Faculty Council. “Memorial Resolution Professor Emeritus Mary Elizabeth Campbell.” Bloomington Faculty Council Minutes, 24 Sept. 1985, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/bfc/view?docId=B06-1986.  

“The Kokomo Tribune 6 Mar 1957, Page 11.” Newspapers.com, The Kokomo Tribune, www.newspapers.com/image/2451840/?image=2451840.  

Merrick, Ben A. “The 56th Evacuation Hospital (Baylor Unit) Overseas in World War II.” 

Taylor & Francis, 28 Jan. 2018, www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08998280.1992.11929794.