New at the Archives: Esther Thelen papers 1977-2005

Professional headshot of Esther Thelen
Professional headshot of Esther Thelen, IU Archives P0078703

We are happy to announce that the papers of Esther Thelen (1941-2004), former professor of psychology at Indiana University Bloomington and a prominent figure in the field of developmental psychology, are now available for access at the University Archives.

After receiving her undergraduate degree in zoology from the University of Wisconsin in 1963, Thelen took a break from academia to begin her family before beginning graduate studies in zoology at the University of Missouri. It was there that she took a graduate course in animal behavior, which set off a chain of connections that would eventually lead to her impressive tenure as a professor and scholar in the field of developmental psychology.

Thelen and a tiny research subject during a study on infant coordination
Thelen and a tiny test subject during a study on infant coordination, IU Archives P0078729

While Thelen was conducting a study on the grooming behavior of wasps, the repetitive movements of the wasps reminded her of psychologist J. Piaget’s observation of circular reactions in the movement of human infants. Inspired by this connection, Thelen conducted a descriptive study of 49 different types of repetitive movements in infants, for which she earned her PhD in biological sciences in 1977.

After spending a few years as an assistant professor at the University of Missouri, Thelen came to Indiana University Bloomington as a full professor of psychology in 1985. While at IU, she founded and directed the Infant Motor Development Laboratory, where she and her colleagues studied infant movement, perception, and cognition. With a research output that included three books and over 120 scientific articles and chapters, Thelen made many revelations about infant motor development that influenced scholarship in fields as diverse as pediatric physical therapy, neuroscience, computer science, robotics, and kinesiology.

The Mobile Research Laboratory, a bus containing portable research equipment for the IU Department of Psychology
The Mobile Research Laboratory, a bus containing portable research equipment for the IU Department of Psychology, IU Archives P0078735

Thelen gave talks at universities, conferences, and workshops all over the world, and her influential work was often featured in national media sources. In this 1993 clip from the PBS program Scientific American Frontiers, the cameras follow along as Thelen and her colleagues take a ride in their “Mobile Research Laboratory,” a bus containing portable equipment essential to their studies of infant movement. This Mobile Laboratory enabled Thelen and her colleagues to travel to the homes of their infant research subjects in order to perform their studies remotely. The clip also shows Thelen working with her subjects in the Infant Motor Development Laboratory on campus.

During her tenure at Indiana University Bloomington, Thelen set a new standard for studying motor control and coordination in infants. Her collection at the University Archives includes materials such as personal files and correspondence; documents related to public speaking appearances, publications, and leadership roles in professional organizations and committees; educational materials from psychology courses taught by Thelen; and materials related to Thelen’s research, including handwritten notes, drafts of studies, and original U-Matic videotapes of research subjects.

To learn more about the Esther Thelen papers 1977-2005 or to view the collection yourself, please feel free to contact the University Archives to set up an appointment.

Family Life in 19th Century Autograph Books

Autograph books provide a fascinating way to understand social interactions and genealogy. These objects contain signatures and messages from one’s friends and family, handwriting practice, drawings, and memorabilia. While going through the Indiana University Archives small collections, I found four of these books dating from the nineteenth century. I was immediately charmed by their Victorian aesthetic and the sincere sentiments written within. I also discovered how they provide intriguing paths into family histories of the Midwest—and of Indiana University students.

Two of the autographs books were created by a certain Jacob A. Zoll from 1881-1886, and the other from 1885-1897. The first book captured my attention because even though it dates back to the 1880s, it is full of colorful paper stickers in the form of spring flowers, cherubs, and wildlife. It reminded me of my own adolescent obsession with Lisa Frank stickers.

From Jacob A. Zoll’s autograph book (February 26, 1883), 2007/068, Indiana University Archives

It was not immediately clear to me who Zoll was, or what (if any) relationship he had with Indiana University. As an art historian-turned-training-archivist, I decided to beef up my genealogy research skills to find this out. I turned to the Ancestry Library Edition, a resource accessible through the IU Libraries, and discovered through U.S. census records that Zoll was born in Ohio in 1861. By 1880, he lived in Belle Flower, Illinois with his family. When he was older, Zoll moved to Urbana, Illinois, became a carpenter, and lived with his wife and two stepsons.

Learning about Jacob Zoll’s biography helped solve another mystery—the identity of Clara Burkett, the creator of another one of the autograph books at the IU Archives. Clara’s book was presented to her by her father on September 24, 1879. She collected her first signature four days later, in Marshall, Indiana. Her friend Mary English wrote simply, “Remember me Clara.” The book mostly contains poems and signatures from schoolmates and cousins, scattered across southern Indiana and Illinois counties. Based on my census research, I confirmed that Clara was, in fact, Jacob’s wife.

Naturally wanting to find more information about Clara, I soon discovered how difficult it can be to track genealogy for women. In order to trace her in Ancestry records, I had to search her various used names (and spellings) across her single and married life. She was born Clara Burkett in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 1864. A minister’s daughter, her family moved around Indiana and Illinois in the late 1800s. In 1882, she married John Milton Wolfe. They had two children, Elmer and Wirskenn (known as “Winn”). According to the Danville Daily News, tragedy struck in August 1887, when John Wolfe died of typhoid fever at the age of 26. Clara raised her sons as a single mother until 1890, when she married Jacob in McLean County, Illinois.

This unveiled family history made me view Jacob’s and Clara’s autograph books in a more emotional light. Without these details, I would have overlooked the evidence of genuine affection this combined family had for one another. Elmer’s and Winn’s signatures appear all over the pages of Clara’s book. Winn wrote on December 30, 1895:

“My friend mother is a comforter and love to me.
That when you read this you remember me.
No one like a friend so clear to me,
Winnie Wolfe.”

Also touching, Elmer wrote in his stepfather’s autograph book on January 25, 1895: “When this you see/Think of me/Your boy, Elmer.” For me, this experience was a powerful example of how archival research can bring to the surface individual voices and family stories that may otherwise be lost in historical narratives.

After all of this research, I still had one mystery to solve—how these autograph books ended up in the IU Archives in the first place. The fourth autograph book was owned by “Rosa,” although her last name was not immediately evident. Her autograph book, kept 1881 through 1886, is full of the same charming paper stickers that appear in Jacob A. Zoll’s books. Rosa’s friend Charley Frankenberger attached a sticker of mallard ducks to his humorous message on February 3, 1884: “May all your days/Be spent in piece [sic] /And your old/Man dies in Greace [sic].”

From Rosa Wolfe’s autograph book (1886), 2007/068, Indiana University Archives

To identify the mysterious “Rosa,” I turned to the rosters of Indiana University graduates held in the Archives reading room, and noted relevant surnames from these autograph books. After cross-referencing the names with Ancestry records, I found one exact match: Ralph Verlon Wolfe, who graduated between 1936 and 1939. His mother’s name? Rosa Wolfe. Coincidences aside, I found it highly probable that Ralph’s mother was Rosa Wolfe, the autograph book’s original owner. Genealogy records provided evidence that Rosa lived in southern Illinois and Indiana, and had some of the same relatives as Elmer and Winn Wolfe. Thus, I made an educated connection that Ralph Wolfe (or one of his own descendants) donated this entire set of autograph books as a family collection.

Combing through genealogy and I.U.-specific records to map these autograph books was a real archival journey for me. The autograph books provide an intimate, and even touching glimpse into historical family dynamics. To view these special objects yourself, contact the Indiana University Archives.

2007/068, Indiana University Archives

James Robert “Bob” Leffler: The Discovery in Archival Research

While recently perusing the reference files in the IU Archives reading room, I happened upon an unusual object: a vinyl record. Thinking this was a strange item to be in a reference file, I spoke with one of the archivists and decided to do some further investigation. As it turns out, the record belonged to James Robert Leffler, known as Bob Leffler. After some searching, I discovered that the IU Archives does not hold much about him. This proved to be a potential case study on how to do archival research, so I began my work.

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175th Anniversary of Monroe County & Bloomington: Robert Leffler – Speaker. Courtesy of Monroe County History Center Research Library.

I was able to determine that a Leffler archival collection exists at the Monroe County History Center Research Library. This is an instance where the archival research process can be more complicated than originally thought. Instead of simply looking at the IU Archives resources as I normally do for blog posts, I was going to have to piece together the story from outside sources—including making a trip off-campus. In the meantime, I worked on locating any information I could from the resources in the IU Archives.

One resource I turned to was Archives Online at Indiana University, our portal for searching archives collections across campus. I determined that Leffler was not in any collections held by the University Archives, but that he did appear in a collection from the Indiana University Center for the Study of History and Memory, now the Center for Documentary Research and Practice. This particular archive contained an oral history interview on movie theaters in which Leffler had participated, but I was more concerned with his biography as it pertained to IU.

I also utilized online resources provided by the IU Libraries, such as the NewspaperARCHIVE and Ancestry Library Edition , to find more information about Leffler. I found very little beyond immediate family member names and public records through Ancestry; however, the reference file where I had originally found the vinyl record did contain some information. This file was not labeled for Leffler, but for Leffler’s family; it contained mostly genealogical information. Although it did not provide information about Bob Leffler, I did discover that he had relatives, Shepherd and Isaac Leffler, who had attended Indiana University in its early years. Both are mentioned in the First Catalogue as students in the early 1830s. Apparently, Shepherd moved to Iowa and became a Congressman.

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Four Walking Tour Pamphlets from the James Robert “Bob” Leffler Collection. Courtesy of Monroe County History Center Research Library.
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“Historical Bloomington, A Guide” from the James Robert “Bob” Leffler Collection. Courtesy of Monroe County History Center Research Library.

Since I discovered that the Monroe County History Center Research Library had a collection on Leffler,  I contacted Emily Noffke, who very kindly scheduled a research visit. When I arrived, I was required to wash my hands before I viewed the archival collection. This is a small example of how different institutions have different rules for interacting with archival collections. While the Leffler collection was small, I did get pictures of Leffler and his files. Thanks to his obituary, I learned that he did indeed have a closer connection to IU than I originally thought. Leffler received his bachelor’s degree from the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, but he came back home to Bloomington and attended the Indiana University School of Music for his master’s degree. He went on to teach music at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music and the New York Institute for the Education of the Blind. Leffler also became known for his local history (Bloomington) expertise. He was a member of the Monroe County Historical Society, who named him Historian/Laureate of Monroe County. Most of his collection at the MCHC Research Library appears to be his notes and work on Monroe County history.

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Leffler listed in the upper left-hand corner of the Indiana University Catalog, 1936

So what about the vinyl record? It is labeled “The Power of Love” and is accompanied by sheet music and correspondence. It appears that, as a musician, Leffler was asked about the recording of the song “The Power of Love” on this record. Apparently, the song was written by Jim Boothe, one of the writers of “Jingle Bell Rock.”

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“The Power of Love”

While this is only a small example, my quest to discover more about Bob Leffler and his record exemplify the exciting journey of archival research. Thank you to the Monroe County History Center Research Library and Emily Noffke for the research help.

From the Classroom: A stitch into the 1930s

From the Classroom is a new series featuring interviews with IUB students and faculty who are utilizing IU Archives’ collections for class assignments and inspiration. Follow here over the coming months for periodic posts about the various forms this can take! 

Name: Beth Maben

1930s style dress
1930s style dress made by IU senior Beth Maben for her History of Fashion class. Beth scoured Arbutus yearbooks at the Archives for inspiration

Background: I am from Bloomington, Indiana and grew up here as well. I wanted to stay in Bloomington for college because IU has good programs for what I wanted to major in. I’ll graduate in May 2018, with majors in Japanese Language and Fashion Design and a minor in Apparel Merchandising. I want to go into the fashion industry eventually, but first I have applied for jobs teaching English abroad in South Korea and Japan.

For my History of Fashion class (taught by Ashley Hasty, Senior Lecturer in the School of Art and Design) we visited the IU Archives to see how we could use their resources in our projects. I was making a 1930’s style evening dress and used the Arbutus yearbooks from IU Archives for my research to see what college students were wearing for formal events despite it being the Great Depression.

Other repositories she visited at IU: I have been to the Sage Collection which focuses on historical fashion as well as the Mathers Museum which has many items from all over the world.

Favorite item at the IU Archives: The 1933 Arbutus was my favorite because of the art deco theme.

What she wanted to tell her family and friends after visiting the IU Archives: They have almost everything on IU’s history! Even if you don’t have any relatives that attended IU, it is still really interesting to see the lives of students who were just like us.

New at the Archives: Kathleen Cavanaugh scrapbooks 1960-1965

Kathleen Cavanaugh as an undergraduate student at Indiana University, circa 1964. C617 Box 3.

Over the years, the Indiana University Archives has steadily been acquiring an impressive assortment of photo albums and scrapbooks (see Catherine Ruby Force’s scrapbook, 1915-1920; the Margaret Werling scrapbook 1951-1953; and the Delmus E. Aldridge wrestling scrapbook 1929-1979, just to name a few!)

Scrapbooks and other handmade memory books are a valuable part of our collections, especially when they are created by students to document their experiences at Indiana University at various points in the University’s history. We are happy to share one of our most recent acquisitions, the Kathleen Cavanaugh scrapbooks 1960-1965 (C617), as a testament to the scrapbook as a fun, creative, and uniquely personal document of the student experience at IU!

Kathleen Cavanaugh (1942-2016) was born on November 9, 1942 in Indianapolis, Indiana to Martha and Harry Cavanaugh of Salem, Indiana. After graduating from Salem High School, Cavanaugh attended Indiana University Bloomington as an undergraduate student from 1960-1964, where she earned her bachelor’s degree in Zoology. During her time as an undergraduate, she was a very active member of the Gamma Phi Beta sorority, continuing to hold several leadership roles in the sorority even after she graduated. An enthusiastic participant in campus life, she was also a member of the Association for Women Students and the Young Women’s Christian Association. Cavanaugh later re-enrolled at Indiana University as a graduate student, earning her M.A. in Biology in 1970.

Freshman Camp 1960: the “neatest way to start college!” C617 Box 1.

This collection contains three scrapbooks compiled by Cavanaugh during her time as an undergraduate student in the early 1960s. Each is filled with photographs, newspaper clippings, greeting cards, and other mementos that Cavanaugh saved to document the various social activities that she participated in, starting with Freshman Camp in the fall of 1960, which she described as “the neatest way to start college.” She saved many items related to her Gamma Phi Beta sorority, including rush schedules, group photos, and clippings from times when her sorority sisters made the newspaper. Cavanaugh loved attending sporting events on campus, and she dedicated spreads in two of her scrapbooks to the Little 500 bicycle race events in 1962 and 1963.

Pages containing mementos from one of the numerous dances that Cavanaugh attended as an undergraduate student. C617 Box 1.

Cavanaugh enjoyed collecting various knick knacks, saving things like coasters and matchbooks from her favorite restaurants on campus, and funny cards that she received from friends and family for her birthday and Valentine’s Day. One page contains a sparkly blue lei and a colorful corsage from one of the many dances that she attended over the years. In addition, Cavanaugh used these scrapbooks to document some of the big changes and exciting events that were going on around campus at the time, including the 1962 retirement of Herman B Wells as president of the university and famous comedian Bob Hope opening the Little 500 Variety Show in 1964.

Flipping through the scrapbooks that Cavanaugh compiled is a special opportunity to get an idea of what it was like to be a student at Indiana University in the early 1960s, from the perspective of someone who embraced the student life and participated in as many events and activities as she could, documenting her adventures along the way.

Cavanaugh’s scrapbooks contain memories from many sporting events, including the Little 500 bicycle races in 1962 and 1963. C617 Boxes 1 and 2.

If you would like to see the Kathleen Cavanaugh scrapbooks for yourself, please feel free to contact the IU Archives to set up an appointment.