World War II Affects School of Journalism

John Stempel and Ernie Pyle

The newly processed Indiana University School of Journalism Chair’s records in the IU Archives is a rich collection that documents the school during its many changes. As I worked through the collection, however, what I found particularly interesting is the bounty of records about the school and World War II, and one file in particular showcases the war’s impact.

Around 1943, the Journalism War Program was instituted under the chairmanship of John E. Stempel. With men being drafted left and right and vacancies in the profession piling up, the need for journalists increased drastically. To help with this, the then-Department of Journalism began to offer a condensed course of study in Journalism, reducing the length of time to graduate from four years to two and two-thirds. In order to do this, students would have to attend school year-round. In addition, an eight-month high school program was established so that, should participating students be eligible and wish to attend IU to study Journalism, one year’s worth of study would have been completed. Also, these students could potentially get work with weekly newspapers where they may not need workers with the higher level of experience.

WWII School of Journalism Curricula
The curricula offered for the Journalism program during WWII

For more information on this program and other aspects of the School of Journalism from 1922-1976, contact us about access to this newly processed collection! Also take a look at our other prominent collection documenting the School of Journalism, 1911-2008, Collection C142!

Winter Sledding Advice – In the Words of William Henry Tecumseh Michaelmas

In my opinion there are few things which make winter “worth it,” the first one being waking up to fresh overnight snows such as the one from last night when the whole world seems a little but quieter…

Sledding (Winter 1936-1937)

The second is sledding.

For those of you looking for a little sledding advice to partake in the fresh snowfall today, I will refer to the expert advice of the revered William Henry Techumseh Michaelmas (aka Lawrence Wheeler, the first Executive Director of the IU Foundation) in his column “Indiana, Our Indiana” which was published in the weekly Bloomington Star-Courier from the early 1940s to the early 1950s.

Bloomington Star-Courier, January 2, 1948

Can you imagine a time in Bloomington when you could sled through the public square? And that your only worry might be running into a buggy?

Following graduation, Wheeler joined the editorial staff of The Indianapolis Star and shortly thereafter moved on to a career in fund-raising for a variety of colleges, churches, hospitals and other public institutions. Upon the call of president Herman B Wells in 1944, Wheeler returned to his alma mater to become the first Executive Director of the Indiana University Foundation. However, during this period he continued to pursue his journalistic career, authoring his column “Indiana, Our Indiana” under the name William Henry Tecumseh Michaelmas and composing comedic letters of congratulation to a wide variety of individuals both public and private under the name Oscar B Burlap (imaginary IU alumnus and owner of the Burlap Turnbuckle Manufacturing Company).

The IU Archives holds the published and manuscript versions of Wheeler’s “Indiana, Our Indiana” column in which Wheeler’s often tongue-and-check prose covers the entire spectrum of Indiana University current events and history, often capturing the unique

Bloomington Star-Courier, January 10, 1948

“flavor” of the campus in that era. Articles highlight athletic rivalries; the accomplishments of distinguished faculty such as folklorist Stith Thompson, Nobel prize winner Dr. Hermann Muller, and Rolla Harger, inventor of the “Drunkometer”, the predecessor to breathalyzer; campus events such as notable art exhibitions, performances by the Jordan River Revue and the proposed change of Jordan Field – the first athletic field on campus – into the present day IMU parking lot. Other columns highlight the activities of student groups such as the Board of Aeons and Sigma Chi fraternity; campus issues such as the massive increases in student enrollment following WWII, student employment and housing, and the use of the university library. To see copies of all of Wheeler’s “Indiana, Our Indiana” columns as well as his manuscripts contact the IU Archives.

The Big Apple Comes to Blooming-town

In the spring of 1948, Henry R. Hope, chairman of the Fine Arts Department, in collaboration with the I.U. Foundation, pulled off a small miracle for the then sleepy town of Bloomington, Indiana and the campus of Indiana University, which was then home to only 11,414 students. The rapidly expanding and nationally recognized Fine Arts department as well as the recently completed campus Auditorium (1941), caught the attention of the Metropolitan Museum of Art which was in the process of organizing a traveling exhibition of some of its most famous paintings.

The introduction to the exhibition catalogue pointedly laid out the intent behind the Metropolitan traveling exhibition program and partnership with Indiana University:

The Metropolitan Museum of Art welcomes this opportunity to bring its treasures before the public of the Midwest. Since 1870 this Museum has pioneered in the cultural and artistic life of this continent. It has opened the door to three generations who have seen beyond it the broader horizons of our common past…

The Museum now has accumulated collections beyond, indeed, the capacity of its present buildings and the immediate needs of its metropolitan audience. Our duty and our opportunities lie in the nation at large where by sending exhibitions to other museums we may assist our colleagues in the common task of awakening Americans to the responsibilities of world leadership and the understanding between peoples.

We are grateful to Indiana University for its initiative and hospitality and hope this will be but the beginning of an exchange of people, ideas, and works of arts.

~Francis Henry Taylor (Metropolitan Director)

April 5, 1948

After great anticipation, at the beginning of April a special steel railroad car under special guard arrived in Bloomington via the Monon Railway, bearing, according to the Bloomington Star-Courier, “about a million and one quarters’ dollars worth of wood and canvas that has been decorated over a period of more than 400 years.”

Lawrence Wheeler (Director of the IU Foundation) and Henry R. Hope (Chair of the Fine Arts Dept.) inspecting the crates, April 5, 1948




Once unloaded, the crates were transported by truck to the south entrance of the Auditorium, where within days they would hang alongside the famous Thomas Hart Benton Murals.  Over the course of the coming weeks an estimated 70,000 individuals would flock to the halls of the auditorium to gaze upon the marvels, while numerous lectures, classes, musical performances, and public and private tours were held in conjunction.


Wondering by chance WHICH 30 famous Old Master paintings traveled to Bloomington? For that you’ll have to wait until next week for Part II of the story –  but I’ll just tell you that it gave this art nerd goosebumps! 😉

The Boys of Summer at IU

During World War II, Indiana University was not unlike other universities and colleges in that nearly every aspect of university operations underwent a number of changes. Personnel-wise, there were fewer men on campus, and many of them who were in Bloomington were in uniform.

Baseball uniforms, that is! Well, at least for one spring month in 1943 and 1944.

IDS, April 3, 1943. The “Business and Economics Building” is now known as Woodburn Hall.

At the January 11, 1943 Athletics Committee meeting, IU Athletics Director Zora Clevenger reported that seven professional baseball “clubs” as well as the President of the American Association had contacted him inquiring about the use of the fieldhouse (now the Wildermuth Fieldhouse) for spring training. Teams included the Indianapolis Indians, Cleveland Indians, Cincinnati Reds, Pittsburgh Pirates, Brooklyn Dodgers, Montreal Royals, and the Toledo Mud Hens. The Committee recommended Clevenger and IU baseball coach Paul “Pooch” Harrell work with the administration to come to mutually agreeable terms with the Indianapolis Indians and another team.

Within the week, IU President Herman B Wells reported that the members of the Executive Committee had approved the proposal for the Indianapolis Indians and Cincinnati Reds to come to campus. Trustee Feltus must have been a baseball fan – notations on memos regarding the plans indicate he said “we should have them by all means.”

It is not known what terms the university reached with the teams, but in response to a letter of inquiry from the Muncie Star regarding the arrangements, Vice President and Treasurer Ward Biddle stated, “Neither the University nor the City have been asked to defray any expenses in connection with bringing these ball clubs to Bloomington, and we are expecting that we will be reimbursed by them for out-of-pocket expenses in connection with their training.”

The Indiana Daily Student was all atwitter about this development. The Reds were the first to arrive on campus with team news coverage beginning in February followed by near daily reports regarding the teams’ arrivals, preparations, practices, and exhibition games.

The reporters of the IDS were not alone – this was terrific excitement for Bloomington. The Jaycee’s gave a baseball banquet on March 18 for the Reds at Alumni Hall; tickets could be had for $2 per person. Speakers included Warren Giles, general manager for the Reds, Reds Manager Deacon Bill McKechnie, Ownie Bush, Indianapolis Indians owner, Clevenger, and President Wells. The IDS reported that a few of the more popular Reds players – which at that time included 1939 MVP Bucky Walters and 1940 MVP Frank McCormick — would be asked to “spin a baseball yarn, or two.” Mickey McCarty, managing editor of the Indianapolis News and former editor of the IDS, would serve as master of ceremonies. Due to the shortage of service staff on the war-time campus, the Association of Women Students President Leona Menze called together the sorority presidents to devise a plan to assist. Together they launched “a patriotic program designed to bring in members of every house as volunteer workers for the day.” Payment was given in the form of War Savings Stamps and the participants wore special armbands.

The Reds’ groundskeeper came to campus prior to the team in order to prep Jordan Field (now home to the IMU parking lot), though the team planned to begin training in the Fieldhouse until weather improved. Work included raising the pitching mound, enlarging the infield, and in general, just smoothing out the field.

The team was housed at the Graham Hotel in town (now the Graham Plaza at 205 N. College), from which they walked to the 10th Street stadium (current home to the Arboretum) to use the locker facilities before heading over to the Fieldhouse for four hours of daily practice. The IDS reported that during the Reds first practice “several hundred male students” gathered to watch.

The first members of the Indianapolis Indians began arriving on March 27 with the entire team due to land in Bloomington by April 1 or shortly thereafter. Those familiar with Southern Indiana springs can guess that the weather was the biggest hurdle facing the two teams (well, with the exception of Reds player Bucky Walters, who tripped over a hurdle and bruised his heel whilst warming up one day). The Indians first outdoor drill was cut short when the winds became too much for the players.

On April 8, however, the IDS reported on the first exhibition game held the previous day between the Reds and Indians on Jordan field. The Reds triumphed over the Indians, 8-6, in front of a capacity crowd of 2,000 students, townspeople, visitors, soldiers, and Marines. The Indiana weather became a factor for the next Reds exhibition game. The Chicago Cubs traveled from their spring training home of French Lick but alas, the game was cancelled due to rain. With that sad note, the Reds training camp came to a close and the Indians were left with ample Fieldhouse space for their next few weeks of conditioning.

The Indians run laps in the Fieldhouse, March 28, 1943.

In what must have been crazy-exciting for the IU team, the Indians scheduled an exhibition game with the “Harrellmen” on April 13. But once again, the weather interfered – it snowed. In April. They rescheduled for the 15th but were thwarted by more snow. Unfortunately, there was not enough time to reschedule a third time, as the Indians departed campus on the 20th, bound for Terre Haute where they planned to play the Minneapolis Millers in two exhibition games. (Weather cooperated in 1944, however, and the IU team defeated the Indians, 5-3!)

The professional teams were wholly satisfied with the campus facilities and both returned the following year, much to the enjoyment of Bloomington baseball fans.

Want to read some more about this brush with baseball fame? The IDS is available on microfilm in the Government Information and Kent Cooper Services on the 2nd floor of the Wells Library. Also, as I researched for this story, I copied the bulk of the newspaper articles and they are available in the Archives – contact us for access!