H228: Creating Archival Stories #6

Charles Herbert Broshar by Cullen Kane

Charles Herbert Broshar

As soon as new students step on to Indiana University’s Bloomington campus, they are officially christened as Hoosiers. This name unites every single person who attends our diverse school under a common title, and with that title comes a network of past and present Hoosiers ready and willing to support each other. As Hoosiers, we have a duty to reflect on our university’s history and to remember the individuals who helped shape Indiana University into the institution it is today. The Covid-19 pandemic is shaping, and will continue to shape, our university, and during these unprecedented times, many Indiana University students contemplated taking a semester or year off, either for safety reasons or to delay schooling for a time in order to hopefully see the world return to some form of normalcy before going back to the college experience. Nearly eighty years ago, students also had the choice of returning to school or taking time off, but for those students, the choice was not a simple matter of finding a part-time job or some other way to pass the time. No, for them it was a matter of life and death, a matter of continuing their education at IU or risking their lives by enlisting to fight in the second World War.  

USS Griffin

One such student faced with this decision was Charles Herbert Broshar, a native Hoosier born and raised in Lebanon, Indiana. He started college at Indiana University and began working toward a business degree for a few years. However, seeing that the entrance of the United States into World War II was inevitable and fast approaching, Broshar, like many others, decided to enlist. On November 1, 1941, Broshar officially became a cadet in the United States Navy Reserve, serving as a storekeeper rank third-class. As storekeeper, his duties would have included purchasing and procuring the proper supplies for the ship and making orders for new shipments. Storekeeper duties also included the issuing of equipment, tools, and other consumable items to the men. On November 14th of that same year, Broshar was called to active duty as a crew member on the USS Griffin. The USS Griffin was a submarine tender, a type of ship that is tasked with keeping submarines stocked with food, torpedoes, fuel, and other supplies. Some submarine tenders, the USS Griffin among them, were also equipped with workshops to repair the submarines. After it was successfully converted into a submarine tender, the USS Griffin conducted a quick shakedown or test cruise off the East coast then headed to Newfoundland with a small sub squadron of submarines. While in Newfoundland, the ship was recalled to Newport, Rhode Island.  

USS Griffin with submarines

This Atlantic-based ship was ordered into new waters when, on December 7th, 1941, after Japan infamously attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, the USS Griffin was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. This attack officially brought the US out of isolationism and into the war, and Broshar’s assignment to the Pacific Fleet right after the Pearl Harbor tragedy must have made the war feel very real. The USS Griffin, with Broshar aboard, then departed for Brisbane, Australia on February 14, 1942 and arrived at her destination two months later on April 15, 1942. In Brisbane, the crew of the USS Griffin repaired and restocked submarines that were used to disrupt Japanese shipments. As the submarines were disrupting shipments from below the surface, the rest of the Pacific Fleet was busy preparing for the first Pacific offensives above the surface.  

After approximately nine months of supplying, repairing, and escorting submarines around Oceania, the USS Griffin arrived back in the United States on January 20, 1943, and on February 4, 1943, Broshar finally made it back to Indiana after being away from home for two years. Broshar made the most of his brief eleven day leave by marrying his college sweetheart Marjorie Ann Bicknell on February 10, 1943 at First Christian Church in Sullivan, Indiana. He returned to San Francisco on February 14th to rejoin the crew of the USS Griffin, and Marjorie followed him out west several days later in order to spend a few precious weeks with her new husband before he headed out to sea again. After leaving San Francisco, Broshar and the USS Griffin headed back to Australia and rejoined their submarine squadron before sailing closer to Japanese shipping lanes at Mios Woendi, New Guinea where they repaired many different crafts. They stayed in New Guinea until February 1st, 1945, at which point they headed to Subic Bay, Leyte, Philippines, where they set up the first submarine repair facility in the Philippines. The submarines that Broshar and the USS Griffin supported basically destroyed the Japanese merchant ships and were instrumental in the success of the Pacific Offensive. After the official Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri on September 2nd, 1945, the USS Griffin departed the Pacific and started its return to San Francisco, where it arrived on September 20, 1945. Broshar eventually found his way back to Indiana University where he completed his school and earned a bachelor’s degree in business on February 2nd, 1946. 

Charles Broshar made a choice to serve his country when it needed him most. This act of selflessness is an example to us and future generations of Hoosiers. I am proud to call Charles Herbert Broshar a fellow Hoosier, and it is people like him, people who are willing to risk life and limb for the good of others, who have brought glory to old IU.  

Bibliography 

Chen, C. Peter. “[Photo] Submarine Tender USS Griffin with Unidentified Submarines (Possibly USS Piranha, USS Lionfish, USS Moray, USS Devilfish, or USS Hacklebak), Midway Atoll, 26 Aug-1 Sep 1945.” WW2DB, ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=16856.  

Griffin, www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/g/griffin.html.  

“Indiana University.” “Charles Herbert Broshar”, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/archivesphotos/results/item.do?itemId=P0067284.  

“NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive.” Submarine Tender Photo Index (AS), www.navsource.org/archives/09/36/3613.htm.  

H228: Creating Archival Stories #5

We continue to share some of the student work from a recent course collaboration! This semester, University Archives Director Dina Kellams worked with Ron Osgood’s Honors H228: Creating Archival Stories course. For one of their assignments, students were asked to select an IU affiliate from the Archives War Service Register records and dig into their story. Due to COVID, students were not able to visit the Archives so all research was done online, largely through free or subscription services available to them through IU Libraries, and the students did a marvelous job. Hope you enjoy these samples of student work and the stories they discovered!

Frank Elliott by Sam Jones

Junior Frank Elliott, Class of 1931, pictured with the rest of the Rushville High School varsity basektball team (1930). His section reads: Frank Elliott ’31, Forward: “Frank was a constant scoring threat to every team the Lions came up against this season. He is one of the best forwards in this locality and the next year should be one of the best in the state. He also has a ‘dead eye’ for foul shots.”

Who was Frank Vernon Elliott? And how did he go from a small town in Indiana to ending up in England just years after graduating college? Born in about 1914, Frank Elliott was raised Rushville, Indiana, by his parents Mr. and Mrs. William Elliott. Rushville is a small city in rural Indiana about 1-hour east of Indianapolis. Coming from a small area of only about 5,000 residents, Frank Elliott made the most of opportunities to get involved in anything he could at a young age. In his high school days, he participated in many different extracurriculars, including Rushville High School’s varsity basketball team, football team, and agricultural club. He came from a family of two older brothers who previously dominated the sports scene at Rushville High School, however, Frank was arguably the best talent the school had seen. After graduating from Rushville High School in 1931, he took time off from school before later enrolling at Indiana university in the year 1937. 

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Newsclipping from the Carthage Citizen, May 4, 1945.

Frank Elliott enrolled at Indiana University Bloomington to continue his studies with a focus in business. He matriculated September 9th of 1937 and received his Bachelor of Science in Business on June 2nd of 1941. With World War II beginning in the year 1939, it is certain that times were tough, confusing, and stressful for the student population of college students across the nation. The war very well influenced the future generation of college grads, giving opportunities to enlist in the military and make a difference in the war efforts. Frank Elliott was one of these students who had to make tough decisions on how to proceed with his future after graduation. According to his hometown newspaper, the Carthage Citizen, after graduating from Indiana University, Frank Elliott worked as a “paper drying and trimming machine operator for the Container Corporation of America.” After his time in the workforce, Frank ultimately made the decision to  enlist in the military in the beginning of 1943. 

Robert E. Janes (left) and Frank Vernon Elliott (right) inspecting ammunition for a fighter plane, circa 1942.

Elliott enlisted in the military in the midst of WWII. Military records show that he was an ordnance flight chief in Col. Kyle L. Riddle’s 479th fighter group of the 2nd air division. Known as “Riddle’s Raiders,” the group commanded its first combat mission in England in May 1944. Riddle’s Raiders were a part of the Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) and served as the center point of America’s heavy bomber force, a key group in the Allies war efforts at the time. Elliot’s role in the squadron was to conduct regular inspections of both ammunition and bombs for P-51 Mustang fighter planes. In addition to this role, Sgt. Frank Elliott also performed weekly checkups of firearms, tactical weapons, and various supplies belonging to enlisted soldiers and officers. His air force squadron, stationed across the Atlantic Ocean in England, was commended for the part it played in making it possible for the destruction of 43 enemy aircraft and the damaging of 23 others on a German-held airdrome. Sgt. Elliott’s flight group also played a role in both the Normandy invasion, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe, in June 1944, as well as the Battle of the Bulge, the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II, from December 1944 to January 1945.  

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Newsclipping from the Rushville Republican newspaper, July 14, 1944.

To add to his resume of serving in key battles for the Allied forces, Sgt. Frank Elliott earned recognition through multiple awards and medals. According to the Rushville Republican Newspaper issued in 1944, he was “awarded the Good Conduct medal for fidelity and faithful performance of duty at his Eighth AAF Fighter station in England”. In addition to this award, it was reported that he wore the E-A-ME ribbon alongside five bronze battle stars. 

When reflecting on one’s life from the past, many of their achievements, accolades, information, and overall acknowledgement of success can be absent. Through using the IU libraries and archives, what was thought to be lost information about Elliott turned out to be impactful knowledge and insight about his time both in school and in the armed services. Frank Vernon Elliot, once a buried name in the IU registrar’s list from the early 1900s, is now a recognized name for his achievement in high school and college as well as his selfless dedication to the military in World War II. 

Bibliography 

479 Flying Training Groupwww.cnic.navy.mil/regions/cnrse/installations/nas_pensacola/about/tenant_commands/air_force/479_FTG.html

Ancestry Library Edition. ancestrylibrary.proquest.com/. 

“Archives Online at Indiana University.” Indiana University War Service Register, 1920-1946, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/findingaids/view?doc.view=entire_text&docId=InU-Ar-VAD4127. 

“Historical Newspapers from 1700s-2000s.” Newspapers.com, newscomwc.newspapers.com/. 

Hoosier State Chronicles: Indianas Digital Historic … newspapers.library.in.gov/. 

“Indiana University.” Media Collections Online, media.dlib.indiana.edu/. 

The Golden Book, goldenbook.iu.edu/. 

H228: Creating Archival Stories #4

Elsie Jane Morrow by Mackenzie Brown

Life has a tendency to take every-day people to some unexpected places. One Indiana student  experienced this first-hand. Elsie Jane Morrow’s life of duty and adventure began in 1912 in Hebron, Indiana. Morrow attended Indiana University for three semesters between 1929-1932 but did not earn a degree. She then enrolled in Moser Business College in Chicago, Illinois where she built upon her administrative skills that would later afford her the opportunity  of gaining employment within critical government departments. Once having successfully completed the Moser program, Morrow went on to work within the Social Security Boards of Chicago and Washington D.C.   

Advertisement for Moser Business College

After the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935, these boards were established in order to register citizens for the receival of benefits and to oversee the process of sending payments to eligible beneficiaries (Ourdocuments.gov). This was a massive undertaking.  In the early days of the Social Security Program, employees for the newly established agency were pulled from those that had existed previously (SSA.gov). There was a massive need for workers capable of completing the tasks necessary in order to get the program up and running. Elsie Morrow was up for the challenge.   

After sometime working within the Social Security Boards, Morrow entered into an administrative role within the United States War Department. This was an early iteration of the agency we now know as the Pentagon, which was officially up and running in 1943 (Defense.gov). The War Department was founded in 1789, with the purpose of maintaining the US Army under the direction of Congress (US Gov’t Manual). Morrow held her position within the department until she decided to join the US effort in the second World War as a member of the Red Cross.  

During World War II, this service organization took on responsibilities of  recruiting nurses, collecting blood donations, and overseeing the rehabilitation of civilian war victims (The American Red Cross). Morrow served with the American Red Cross as a secretary for overseas hospital units.  She was only able to do so once she underwent specialized training in Washington D.C. and qualified for duty out of the country. Morrow was one of six local women to join the Red Cross in 1945 (NewspaperArchive-The Vidette Messenger). An article published in a Valparaiso, Indiana newspaper detailed her experience serving in the Pacific theater in 1944. A letter featured within the article described how Morrow’s strangest experiences within her service to the country had largely to do with wildlife, primarily with frogs. In the letter written to her brother, she described her nightly ritual of checking her sleeping quarters for critters ranging from spiders to other wildlife one would not exactly be well acquainted with in small-town Hebron, Indiana. In this clipping is also a description of the barracks Morrow resided in. She described,  “They give a false feeling of privacy, but do not hamper the conversation and talk right through the walls” (IU Archives).  

Wedding announcement, Vidette Messenger, December 3, 1945

At the time this newspaper article was published, Morrow had recently been assigned duties in Australia along with 179 other workers of the Red Cross. It is during her time serving as a hospital administrator in Australia that Morrow met Harry Corwin. Corwin was born in 1911 and hailed from the Midwest as well. In fact, his very small hometown Belle Center, Ohio is located only 4 hours away from that of Morrow. Their paths crossed while working for the Red Cross in Brisbane, Australia, where Corwin served as a field director during this time (NewspaperArchive-The Vidette Messenger). 

Once the war concluded, the couple made their way back stateside to Indiana. Morrow and Corwin married on November 29, 1945 in front of friends and family. 

After marrying, Elsie and Harry relocated to Lima, Ohio. Shortly thereafter, the pair welcomed two daughters named Anna and Jane. Eventually, the family would return to Morrow’s hometown of Hebron, Indiana. Corwin worked for the remaining 52 years of his life as an advertising representative and correspondent for several local newspapers. He also served as a member on the Porter County Convention, Recreation, and Visitors Commission. Harry Corwin passed away on August 27th, 1997 at the age of 86 (NWI). Members of the community that he and Elsie were so active in spoke of Corwin as a kind individual filled with enthusiasm and kindness toward others. His wife Elsie said of him, “He was a kind man. He was very considerate of others and a very compassionate man” (NWI).  

Elsie Morrow passed away at the age of 89 on November 29, 2001 in Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin. She lived a remarkable life, one that led her to pursue her education and aid in the war effort across Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. She was a fixture in her community and left an indelible mark on those around her in her mission to serve others. 

Bibliography 

“Elsie Jane Morrow Corwin (1912-2001) – Find A…” Find a Grave, www.findagrave.com/memorial/161620207/elsie-jane-corwin.  

“Elsie Jane Morrow.” Newspaper Archives, Vidette Messenger, access-newspaperarchive-com.proxyiub.uits.iu.edu/tags/elsie-morrow?page=4&psi=38.  

“Frequently Asked Questions.” American Red Cross, www.redcross.org/faq.html.  

Greig, Terri Anne. “Harry Corwin Touched Many Lives.” NW Times, 29 Aug. 1997, www.nwitimes.com/uncategorized/harry-corwin-touched-many-lives/article_fe08f106-3de6-5610-9430-4413d0dee204.html .  

“Indiana University War Service Register, 1920-1946.” Indiana University Archives, Indiana University Libraries, http://purl.dlib.indiana.edu/iudl/findingaids/archives/InU-Ar-VAD4127.  

Lange, Katie. “Pentagon History: 7 Big Things to Know.” U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, 19 Dec. 2019, www.defense.gov/Explore/Features/story/Article/1867440/the-pentagons-history-7-big-things-to-know/.  

“The Social Security Act (1935).” Our Documents – Home, The National Archives and Records Administration, www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false.  

Social Security History, www.ssa.gov/history/orghist.html.  

“United States Government Manual-1945.” HyperWar: U.S. Government Manual–1945 [War Department], ibiblio.org/hyperwar/ATO/USGM/War.html.  

H228: Creating Archival Stories #3

Vernon Clayton Buchanan by Drake Daly

“If my death helps end the war one minute sooner, it is worthwhile.”

Lieutenant Vernon Clayton Buchanan

The words of Second Lieutenant and Indiana University alumnus Vernon Clayton Buchanan inspire a patriotic spirit in all those who might encounter his final letter. Graduating near the top of his class from Arsenal Tech high school in 1942 and entering Indiana University with two scholarships, Vernon abandoned his academic prospects for the call of duty that many men would hear around the time. The high performing academic would be just another grunt at boot camp, yet he rose quickly to Second Lieutenant, trusted with handling a B-25 bomber in the South Pacific theater. He would start over for a purpose larger than himself, a purpose that he was more than prepared to give his life for. By all recorded accounts, Vernon’s dedication to his country in conjunction with his collectedness serve as a lesson in teleology for now and times to come. 

One of many letters to George Heighway.

Entering Indiana University in the autumn of 1942, Vernon participated in the French club, participated in recreational sports, and became a member of ROTC. His excellent performance achieved him a Bronze medal, as he was “the best-drilled in his R.O.T.C company for 1942.” It was not long thereafter until he would begin more formal training in the Army. He enlisted in the Army Air Force Reserves on February 9, 1943, and began his training at Baer Field near Ft. Wayne, Indiana. One has to wonder if Vernon knew his time in college would be cut short; perhaps he was just taking it one day at a time. In April, Vernon was to take his academic talents to the world of military science at the Army Air Force Classification Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Assigned the role of a pilot, he began pre-flight training at Maxwell, Alabama. The prompt completion of this training landed him first south then west: from the Lodwick School of Aeronautics in Lakeland, Florida to the Navigation Training Center in Monroe, Louisiana. The training took 18 weeks, ending with his promotion to Second Lieutenant on January 15, 1944. Shortly thereafter, Vernon wrote home to George Heighway, the alumni secretary for Indiana University. Detailing his recent achievements, he expressed his enthusiasm for completing even more training at his new post in Roswell, New Mexico. “After completing a twelve-week course here, I will be graduated a dual-rated man: navigator-bombardier on 21 April. That will qualify me for a position on the new super bomber B-29. But so far, I haven’t been on anything larger than a C-60. So it’ll be a thrill to get me one of those ‘big ladies.’”  

“Rough Raiders” emblem (Watkins)

Vernon expressed a clear enthusiasm for translating his academic success to the realm of aeronautics. Although he did not gain possession of one of those “big ladies” he was able to command a B-25: a smaller yet powerful bomber built for evasive strafing and low-altitude bombing. Completing roughly two months of training in South Carolina, he and his team left the states in August, 1944, taking the B-25 all the way to Australia. It was not long before a short flight north would land him in New Guinea where he would complete even more combat training. After his training, he sent another letter to George Heighway from “Somewhere in the Philippines” on November 8, 1944. In the letter, he expresses his admiration for the Filipino people, recent training, and pride in being part of the 500th bombardment squadron, colloquially known as the Rough Raiders. As he described it, his squadron is credited with the most ships sunk and enemy aircraft destroyed. However, an impressive record as a low-altitude bomber does not come without incredible risk. His first combat mission would also be his last. Sometime before this mission, Vernon wrote a letter that would be sent back stateside in the event of his death.  

On a chilly February morning, 1945, the postman handed Mr. and Mrs. Buchanan that very letter. His parents thought its arrival had been a mistake. Somehow, their son was still alive “somewhere in the South Pacific.” They immediately wrote back to Indiana University to ask if the horrid news was true: had their son really died? George Heighway – the alumni secretary that had previously corresponded back and forth with Vernon via letter – solemnly informed Vernon’s parents of the stark reality of war. Lt. Vernon Clayton Buchanan went missing in action after the air raid over Luzon, the small island in the Philippines used as a Japanese flak base. In all likelihood, Vernon and his team of Rough Raiders crashed into the Pacific after sustaining heavy damage to their B-29 bomber.   

Dear Mother and Dad. This is a letter that I hope need never be delivered, for that would mean that I am considered missing or killed in action.

I need not tell you how I feel about you. I realize now that I could have done much more for you and proved myself a good son. As it is, I hope that you don’t feel that these years you have spent in raising me have been wasted.

I want to thank you for your love, your cares, the life and opportunities you have given me. I am sorry that now I will no longer be able to justify your belief in me.

Please don’t think that you have lost everything in losing your son. Remember, I volunteered for this and knew what it might lead to. I have spent some of my happiest moments in the A.A.F. I feel that I have done something to be proud of, something perhaps that will aid America to remain ‘the home of the free, and the land of the brave.’

If my death helps end this war one minute sooner, I consider it worth while.

Millions all over the world are fighting for what they believe in and for those they love; and thousands are dying. It is not in vain!”

Excerpts of Vernon Buchanan’s letter delivered to parents upon his death.

The short letter did not contain any curses of fate, lamentations, or woeful expressions. Throughout its entirety, Vernon expressed his love and respect for his family. He briefly apologized for any sorrow his loss might have caused and assured that his death would not be in vain. He addressed the allocation of his assets in a responsible and selfless manner. Moreover, he wished his girlfriend, Virginia, the courage to move on and be happy in life.  Towards the end of the letter, he playfully yet pointedly said a final goodbye to each one of his sisters, offering advice as well as encouragement. He ends with the quote from Whittier: “‘Tis better to have loved and lost then to have never loved at all.”  

Article concerning Vernon’s heroic death. (IU Archives, Collection C502)

Vernon wasted no time in his short chance at life. He grabbed it by the horns and embraced its victories along with its vicissitudes. He had the courage to drop everything and give America his very best effort. His poignant letter serves as evidence for his prudence in the face of destruction, as well as his stoic self-assurance that life would go on fine without him. We can only hope Vernon’s life will provide an example of a purposeful life for all those who might happen upon his story.  

Bibliography 

Watkins, Robert A. (2013). Insignia and Aircraft Markings of the U.S. Army Air Force in World War II. Volume V, Pacific Theater of Operations. Atglen,PA: Shiffer Publishing, Ltd. ISBN978-0-7643-4346-9

[“If my death helps end the war one minute sooner, it is worth it”]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 02, 2020, from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/findingaids/view?doc.view=entire_text&docId=InU-Ar-VAD4127 

[Lieutenant Vernon Clayton Buchanan]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 02, 2020, from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/findingaids/view?doc.view=entire_text&docId=InU-Ar-VAD4127 

[Letter To George Heighway]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 02, 2020, from http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/findingaids/view?doc.view=entire_text&docId=InU-Ar-VAD4127 

Vernon Clayton Buchanan, Indiana University War Service Register records, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington. 

Tallman 1973, pp. 216, 228. 

H228: Creating Archival Stories #2

Charles J. Baker by Ariana Wilde

Charles Baker in front of the Leaning Tower of Pisa
Figure 1: Charles Baker at the Leaning Tower of Pisa circa 1945, while stationed in Italy.

Charles J. Baker was one of the many Indiana University students whose education was disrupted by events outside his control (in the form of World War II and conscription); one of several similarities he bears to today’s IU students. While the young man enrolled in IU in fall 1942, there are no records in IU files indicating he ever graduated. However, unlike some of the others who were drafted or volunteered to serve in the war, Baker’s records also lack any killed in action notices. So, what happened to him after his enlistment? And how did his military service affect the course of his life? Also, how does his story contain parallels to our experiences? 

Charles Jewell Baker was born October 5, 1923 in Washington, D.C1. While he was a student in Bloomington, he listed his and his parents’ addresses as Washington, D.C., suggesting he attended IU as an out-of-state student. Considering how long such a drive would have taken and how many closer options he had, Baker–like today’s out-of-state and international students–had good reasons to choose IU. 

Baker only completed his freshman year at IU yet did well enough that he was part of the Freshman Honor Society of 1942-433. While at IU, he entered the Enlisted Reserve Corps in November 1942 and by July 1943, he was in the Quartermaster Corps Camp Lee, Virginia. The following April, Baker was stationed at Bari, Italy, serving in the Army Air Corps4

Yearbook photo
Figure 2: A 1948 yearbook page of seniors at George Washington University.

Despite only spending a year at Indiana University, Baker remained as invested in the school’s sports and campus news as students living in Bloomington. While stationed in Italy in 1944, he requested the schedules of the football and basketball teams as well as a subscription to the Indiana Alumni Magazine5.  

Mr. Baker also repeatedly expressed interest in returning to IU after the war, ideally during the fall of 1946.6 However, IU records show he did not. Nonetheless, he did continue his education. The 1948 yearbook of George Washington University indicates he did indeed resume college albeit at a different school7. In fact, given the fact that he joined the Delta Phi Epsilon Professional Foreign Service Fraternity in December 1946, he apparently met his goal of reenrolling in fall 19468.  

Figure 3: Nancy Giglio’s 1948 yearbook page

Attending George Washington University instead of Indiana had a lasting impact on his life. In June 1949, shortly after graduating college, Baker married Nancy Giglio9. She appears as a senior in the same 1948 yearbook. In addition to getting a BA in Spanish, Nancy was involved in a variety of organizations, including Greek Life, the Cherry Tree Yearbook, student government, and soccer10. Presumably, given the time of their marriage, Nancy and Charles met at some point during their time at college, which would not have happened had Charles returned to IU.  

It is possible that his time in Italy influenced or at least confirmed his choice of career path. While his letters while stationed in Italy suggest an interest in math11, he ended up pursuing a Bachelor of Arts in Foreign Service at George Washington University. In some 1945 correspondence12, Baker mentions a wonderful 10-day trip to Switzerland that “compensated in part” for having been “located for the past twenty months in Bari, Italy with an Army Air Forces Supply Depot.” Baker’s travel in that time period is also evident in Figure 1 above, where he is photographed in front of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, some 375 miles away from Bari13.  

Whether he had previously sought an international career or not, his experiences abroad continued. New York passenger arrival lists observe Charles and Nancy Baker returning from Paris in August 196214. By this point the couple lived in Arlington, Virginia. Interestingly, although she does not appear in the passenger manifest, her Virginia marriage record15 (with date of birth) demonstrates that the couple’s daughter Alexandra was almost 6-years old at the time of their trip. Based on his Washington Post obituary16, the Bakers had at least three more children at some point, whose names similarly are not on the manifest. While the couple may have simply gone on a vacation without their kids, it is also possible that the trip in question was related to work. According to his Delta Phi Epsilon obituary17, Baker went on to work for the CIA in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, and Morocco, and became the branch chief of North African affairs before he retired in 1973. Such a job likely involved a fair amount of travel. 

Figure 4: Tombstone in Arlington National Cemetery

Due to his service in World War II, Charles J. Baker was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, not too far away from where he grew up and later graduated from college18. While his path didn’t bring him back to Bloomington or Indiana after the war, Baker’s experience still offers a critical perspective of the IU experience at the time. His correspondence with the Indiana Alumni Magazine indicates an institution and its members trying to support students affected by the war. It also highlights a young man whose short time in Indiana nevertheless allowed him to connect with IU and Hoosiers, including Edward Hutton, whose address he specifically asks about19. The individual captured in the documents in the IU Archives bears a remarkable similarity to current students despite his very different circumstances: he had a favorite professor, participated in extracurricular activities like choir, enjoyed traveling abroad and learning about new cultures, and followed IU basketball. Charles Baker is an exemplar of what an IU student can aspire to, especially as we strive to balance education with drastic world-wide events. 

References 

1.     1930 United States Federal Census, Ancestry.com, Washington, District of Columbia, page 4B, Enumeration District 0361, FHL microfilm 2340038. United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1930. T626, 2,667 rolls. 

2.     IU War Service Record, Indiana University War Service Register records, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, 1. 

3.     Ibid. 

4.     Ibid. 

5.     Baker, Charles. Charles Baker to Indiana Alumnae Association, September 22, 1944. Indiana University War Service Register, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington. 

6.     IU War Service Record, Indiana University War Service Register, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, 2. 

7.     George Washington University. Cherry Tree 1948 Yearbook. Washington D.C.: Graduating Class of 1948, 1948. U.S. School Yearbooks 1900-1999, Ancestry.com, 16. 

8.     “Chapter Eternal.” Delta Phi Epsilon, last modified January 2014. http://www.deltaphiepsilon.net/Chapter_Eternal.html 

9.     District of Columbia, Marriage Records, 1810-1953, Ancestry.com. Marriage RecordsDistrict of Columbia Marriages. Clerk of the Superior Court, Records Office, Washington D.C.  https://search.ancestrylibrary.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?dbid=61404&h=35517&indiv=try&o_vc=Record:OtherRecord&rhSource=9278  

10.   George Washington University. Cherry Tree 1948 Yearbook. Washington D.C.: Graduating Class of 1948, 1948. U.S. School Yearbooks 1900-1999, Ancestry.com, 24. 

11.  Baker, Charles. Charles Baker to Indiana Alumnae Association, September 22, 1944. Indiana University War Service Register, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington. 

12.  IU War Service Record, Indiana University War Service Register, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, 2. 

13.  Archive Photograph Collection. Charles Baker, P0067303. Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington. http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/archivesphotos/results/item.do?itemId=P0067303&searchId=1&searchResultIndex=1 

14.  New York State, Passenger and Crew Lists, 1917-1967, Ancestry.com. Selected Passenger and Crew Lists and Manifests. The National Archives at Washington, D.C. https://www.ancestrylibrary.com/imageviewer/collections/1277/images/42804_336747-07398?pId=6098269 

15.  Virginia, Marriages, 1936-2014, Ancestry.com, Roll: 101142203Virginia Department of Health. Richmond, Virginia. https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/washingtonpost/obituary.aspx?n=charles-jewell-baker&pid=15231322

16.  “Charles Jewell Baker.” Washington Post, September 28, 2005. https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/washingtonpost/obituary.aspx?n=charles-jewell-baker&pid=15231322 

17.  “Chapter Eternal.” Delta Phi Epsilon, last modified January 2014. http://www.deltaphiepsilon.net/Chapter_Eternal.html 

18.  National Cemetery Administration. U.S. Veterans’ Gravesites, ca.1775-2019, Ancestry.com. National Cemetery Administration. Nationwide Gravesite Locator. https://search.ancestrylibrary.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?dbid=8750&h=3697857&indiv=try&o_vc=Record:OtherRecord&rhSource=60901 

19.  IU War Service Record, Indiana University War Service Register, Collection C502, Indiana University Archives, Bloomington, 2.