Heart and Seoul: Early Korean Students at Indiana University Part 2

In a follow-up to her post on Eung Tyun Cho from earlier this spring, archives assistant Briana Hollins continues on here to write about three other early students from Korea to attend Indiana University. You can still view Brianna’s related exhibit poster which was part of Korea Remixed, a campus-wide initiative to celebrate Korean culture, in the Wells Library Lobby.

Pongsoon Lee (Pusan, Korea) (MA, Library Science, 1953) 

Cover of the book Libraries and Librarianship in Korea
Pongsoon Lee and Young Ai Um, Libraries and Librarianship in Korea. Westport, CO : Greenwood Press, 1994.

The first known Korean woman to attend Indiana University, Pongsoon Lee arrived in the United States in 1951 in pursuit of a master’s in library science. She already held a library science degree from E Wha University in Korea. While a prestigious Fulbright scholarship funded her first year of study at IU, funding for the remainder of her studies fell through. A church in Clayton, Indiana stepped up and helped to raise funds so that she could renew her visa and complete her degree. With the help of kind Hoosiers, she completed her degree in three years. Pongsoon persisted and went on to become the director of the E Wha University for Women library in Seoul in 1964. A 1977 recipient of the Beta Phi Mu Chi Chapter Service Award, in 1994 she co-authored the book Libraries and Librarianship in Korea. 


Chonghan Kim (Ichon, Korea) (BA, Government, 1950; MA, Government, 1951; PhD, Government, 1953) 

Black and white group photograph of men from Rogers I, building F
Residents of Rogers I, building F, 1948. Chonghan Kim is the third row, far left. IU Archives image no. P0046943

Chonghan Kim began his college education in Korea and Japan and came to the Unites States in 1948 to attend Indiana University for his B.A. in Government. He was a part of the Cosmopolitan Club, the Asiatic Club, and resided in Rogers I Residence Hall (Ashton). He was a recipient of the Edwards Graduate Fellowship for 1952-1953. Following graduation, Kim worked at Marquette University as an instructor in political science from 1957-1961. He then worked for the Korean Foreign Service as Counselor of the Korean Mission to the United Nations. In March 1963, he was appointed as the Charge d’Affaires of the Korean Embassy in Uganda, where he stayed until May 1964. Following a brief appointment as the Director of the Bureau of International Relations at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Seoul Korea, Kim became a professor at the College of William and Mary where he remained until his retirement in 1992. In 1978, he served as the first president of the Korean Association of the Virginia Peninsula Area.  


Thomas Kunhyuk Kim (Pusan, Korea) (MBA, General Business, 1954) 

Black and white group photograph of residents from North Cottage Grove.
Residents of North Cottage Grove, 1952. Kim – middle row, second from right. IU Archives image no. P0109573

The son of a Methodist minister who served the Korean government in exile in China, Thomas Kunhyuk Kim and his family spent the early part of his life as refugees from the Japanese occupiers of the Korean peninsula. His family was finally able to return to Korea after WWII. In 1948, Kim traveled to the U.S. to attend college; first attending Berea College where he received a B.A. in Economics in 1952 and then IU where he received a M.B.A in 1954. He continued on to receive a PhD in Economics from Tulane University in 1961. Following graduation after a series of teaching positions at Berea College, University of Akron, Baker University in Kansas, and Texas Tech, he became the eighth president of McMurry College in Abilene, Texas, serving from 1970 to 1993. After retiring as President in 1993, he returned to teaching. He taught Economics at Abilene Christian University and later Hardin-Simmons University.  

Heart and Seoul: Early Korean Students at Indiana University

As part of Korea Remixed, a campus-wide initiative to celebrate Korean culture, this spring the IU Archives is recognizing the earliest Korean students to become Hoosiers! Via a series of blog posts and an upcoming poster in the Wells Library Lobby, you will get a peek into the lives of four IU alumni from Korea while on the Bloomington campus and the ways they excelled afterwards.

Whether you’re a fan of K-pop, Kimchi, or their extensive skincare routines, there is a lot to love and appreciate about Korean culture. Respecting your elders and authority, caring deeply for family, and working together to advance their nation are all core values in Korea. Even up to recent years, it was not uncommon that younger generations had to leave their family behind in Korea to pursue better educational opportunities in order to create a better life for their family. While many later return to their homeland, some go on to become citizens of the United States and remain here for the rest of their lives. Acknowledging the hardships and perseverance each of the following early IU students from Korean went through in the pursuit of higher education brings a new perspective on the many different paths to excellence.



Eung Tyun Cho (Pyeng Yang, Korea) (PhD in Physics, 1928)

Before coming to the United States, Eung Tyun Cho, born circa 1897, attended a Korean Presbyterian Mission School followed by a Presbyterian Boys’ Academy for his secondary education. As a young adult, he attended Union Christian College where he received his bachelor’s degree. Upon graduation, Cho returned to Mission High School as a math teacher to teach young students much like his younger self, eventually working his way up to become superintendent of the high school. Despite his accomplishments, Cho felt the need to gain more education to better serve his home country, so he chose to leave his family at his father’s home so that he could travel to the United States – and Indiana – in 1922. Once in the Hoosier state, Cho enrolled in Tri-State College in Angola, where he earned a BS in civil engineering before continuing on to Purdue University to earn his MS in physics. (Indianapolis Star, 1928).

Eung Tyun Cho entered Indiana University in 1925 in pursuit of his PhD and a few years later was made a member of Sigma Xi, an honorary science organization (Indianapolis Star, 1928). To support himself financially during his student years, he did housework, mowed lawns, janitorial work, and other odd jobs he could find (1930 Census for Bloomington, Indiana). Cho specialized in research about radio and TV, completing his dissertation on the topic “A study of three-electrode vacuum tube oscillator: conditions for maximum current ”. In addition to his technological research, he published works on language learning, one being Spoken English, a manual for Korean teachers of spoken English and for students who were learning the English language (Indianapolis Star, 1928).

1927 black and white photo of the cosmopolitan club members, which were largely international students.

The 1927 Cosmopolitan Club which was largely comprised of international students such as Cho, IU Archives P0109572


After completing his studies at IU, Cho wished to return to Korea in order to be a scientific educator to young students like himself. At the time Cho was one of only 12 men in Korea to have a PhD! Even with his impressive credentials, some Korean authorities frowned upon his work, calling it a “waste of time”, which kept him from his dream of teaching. His research and science experiments lacked funding, so he had to give them up. He remarked, “I am a man without a country” (The Bedford Sunday Star, 1936).

Taking a break from his educational and scientific interests, Cho served three years as chief of police communications during the US Military Government period after Korea was liberated from the Japanese in 1945. He then served eight years in the Korean Army, four as chief signal officer. He later was appointed as vice minister of the Korean Ministry of Communications (The Daily Record, 1954). Before, during, and after his career, Cho participated in church communities as well as the YMCA in America and Korea.

And, finally for a satisfying conclusion. In 1964, Eung Tyun Cho became the new president of Tongkuk Engineering College in Seoul, Korea. After decades of perseverance, he became an educator, while at the same time reuniting permanently with his wife and children (The Indianapolis News, 1964).

**This blog post is the first in a two-part series. The next installment will features three more alumni from Korea. Pongsoon Lee, Chonghan Kim, and Thomas Kunhyuk Kim.

The Archives Behind Disney’s Howard: Guest Blog Post by Lori Korngiebel and Don Hahn

The Indiana University Archives had the honor of assisting Lori Korngiebel and Don Hahn in their quest for archival materials on IU alumnus, Howard Ashman, for their documentary Howard. Director of Howard, Hahn is also a film producer who has produced some of Disney’s most beloved animated films, such as Beauty and the Beast and The Lion King. Korngiebel, producer of Howard, has worked on several Disney films and served as Associate Producer for Maleficent and the soon-to-be-released Cruella.

We are so pleased to share that Lori and Don were kind enough to answer a few questions about their research process as they worked on Howard!

Can you tell me about your archival research process? What repositories did you visit?

We were fortunate because Howard’s estate had gifted his archives to the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Don and I started our journey there and spent days excitedly going through archival boxes, finding hidden treasures from Howard’s life (such as his handwritten notes during the “Little Shop” casting process and an audio recording of Howard talking to the “Little Mermaid” directors, Ron Clements and John Musker).  

After we left the LOC, Don and I traveled to NYC were we interviewed Howard’s friends and family, who were also so generous to share photos and videos with us. So, between the LOC and our F&F interviews, we went back to California with a strong foundation to begin building the documentary.

From there, as we began editing the film, Don and I would do research online, reaching out to the people and places that Howard may have had contact with during his life and career. The Indiana University Archives was one of the places we reached out to when we happened upon Kristin Leaman’s Howard Ashman blog post during our online research.

What are some of your exciting archival finds for this documentary?

We knew that Howard had done interviews at THE LITTLE MERMAID junket in Walt Disney World but after searching high and low we were not able to find any of them. Tragically, the 80s are a black hole of lost video tape archives and we had all but given up. Then, one day Don Hahn received a phone call at the office from a colleague saying they had found an audio cassette from the MERMAID junket that they believed had Howard interviews on it. Well, after literally YEARS of searching, we jumped on it and were over the moon when we heard Howard and Alan (Menken) answering questions. It may not have been video but that audio was like GOLD to us!

Did you find any archival materials that significantly impacted the film in a way you were not expecting?

We were told that Howard had learned about his HIV diagnosis on the same day that he spoke at the 92nd Street Y in New York City. We discovered that the Y did not video tape lectures back then but they did record audio and lucky for us they were able to find that audio. With this discovery we knew we would have to find a way to show the significance of this lecture. No one there knew what Howard and his partner Bill had just been told and it is gut wrenching to listen to the interview with the understanding that he is keeping it together, answering questions and making people laugh all while grappling with this horrible news.

What is the most exciting thing you discovered in the Indiana University Archives?

One of our most exciting archival finds came from the IU Archives! We were told there could be a local interview with Howard when he came to the University to see their production of LITTLE SHOP in 1987. When we received the footage we were THRILLED. Our goal was always to have Howard tell his story as much as possible in the film and there he was in an interview that probably hadn’t been seen in over 30 years. It was amazing!

Why was doing archival research and including archival materials in the documentary so important to you?

This is the story of an amazing man, who during his short time on earth, changed the lives of millions (and continues to do so) through his lyrics and songs. In order to do Howard justice, we needed to ensure that we uncovered every lyric, photo, interview and song so the audience could know the man who created the songs we already love and by doing so, fall in love with him, too.

Is there anything that you want people to know about the documentary?

I just feel so lucky to have worked on the film. Like our audience, I never met Howard in person, I only knew him from his work. But, because of the generosity of Don, Sarah (Howard’s sister), Bill (Howard’s partner) and countless other friends and family who donated their time, love and memories to the film… I feel like I do know Howard now and I am blessed to consider him a friend.

Howard Ashman sitting on desk during 1987 campus visit
Howard Ashman, April 1987, courtesy Indiana University Archives, P0026314

H228: Creating Archival Stories #6

Charles Herbert Broshar by Cullen Kane

Charles Herbert Broshar

As soon as new students step on to Indiana University’s Bloomington campus, they are officially christened as Hoosiers. This name unites every single person who attends our diverse school under a common title, and with that title comes a network of past and present Hoosiers ready and willing to support each other. As Hoosiers, we have a duty to reflect on our university’s history and to remember the individuals who helped shape Indiana University into the institution it is today. The Covid-19 pandemic is shaping, and will continue to shape, our university, and during these unprecedented times, many Indiana University students contemplated taking a semester or year off, either for safety reasons or to delay schooling for a time in order to hopefully see the world return to some form of normalcy before going back to the college experience. Nearly eighty years ago, students also had the choice of returning to school or taking time off, but for those students, the choice was not a simple matter of finding a part-time job or some other way to pass the time. No, for them it was a matter of life and death, a matter of continuing their education at IU or risking their lives by enlisting to fight in the second World War.  

USS Griffin

One such student faced with this decision was Charles Herbert Broshar, a native Hoosier born and raised in Lebanon, Indiana. He started college at Indiana University and began working toward a business degree for a few years. However, seeing that the entrance of the United States into World War II was inevitable and fast approaching, Broshar, like many others, decided to enlist. On November 1, 1941, Broshar officially became a cadet in the United States Navy Reserve, serving as a storekeeper rank third-class. As storekeeper, his duties would have included purchasing and procuring the proper supplies for the ship and making orders for new shipments. Storekeeper duties also included the issuing of equipment, tools, and other consumable items to the men. On November 14th of that same year, Broshar was called to active duty as a crew member on the USS Griffin. The USS Griffin was a submarine tender, a type of ship that is tasked with keeping submarines stocked with food, torpedoes, fuel, and other supplies. Some submarine tenders, the USS Griffin among them, were also equipped with workshops to repair the submarines. After it was successfully converted into a submarine tender, the USS Griffin conducted a quick shakedown or test cruise off the East coast then headed to Newfoundland with a small sub squadron of submarines. While in Newfoundland, the ship was recalled to Newport, Rhode Island.  

USS Griffin with submarines

This Atlantic-based ship was ordered into new waters when, on December 7th, 1941, after Japan infamously attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, the USS Griffin was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. This attack officially brought the US out of isolationism and into the war, and Broshar’s assignment to the Pacific Fleet right after the Pearl Harbor tragedy must have made the war feel very real. The USS Griffin, with Broshar aboard, then departed for Brisbane, Australia on February 14, 1942 and arrived at her destination two months later on April 15, 1942. In Brisbane, the crew of the USS Griffin repaired and restocked submarines that were used to disrupt Japanese shipments. As the submarines were disrupting shipments from below the surface, the rest of the Pacific Fleet was busy preparing for the first Pacific offensives above the surface.  

After approximately nine months of supplying, repairing, and escorting submarines around Oceania, the USS Griffin arrived back in the United States on January 20, 1943, and on February 4, 1943, Broshar finally made it back to Indiana after being away from home for two years. Broshar made the most of his brief eleven day leave by marrying his college sweetheart Marjorie Ann Bicknell on February 10, 1943 at First Christian Church in Sullivan, Indiana. He returned to San Francisco on February 14th to rejoin the crew of the USS Griffin, and Marjorie followed him out west several days later in order to spend a few precious weeks with her new husband before he headed out to sea again. After leaving San Francisco, Broshar and the USS Griffin headed back to Australia and rejoined their submarine squadron before sailing closer to Japanese shipping lanes at Mios Woendi, New Guinea where they repaired many different crafts. They stayed in New Guinea until February 1st, 1945, at which point they headed to Subic Bay, Leyte, Philippines, where they set up the first submarine repair facility in the Philippines. The submarines that Broshar and the USS Griffin supported basically destroyed the Japanese merchant ships and were instrumental in the success of the Pacific Offensive. After the official Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri on September 2nd, 1945, the USS Griffin departed the Pacific and started its return to San Francisco, where it arrived on September 20, 1945. Broshar eventually found his way back to Indiana University where he completed his school and earned a bachelor’s degree in business on February 2nd, 1946. 

Charles Broshar made a choice to serve his country when it needed him most. This act of selflessness is an example to us and future generations of Hoosiers. I am proud to call Charles Herbert Broshar a fellow Hoosier, and it is people like him, people who are willing to risk life and limb for the good of others, who have brought glory to old IU.  

Bibliography 

Chen, C. Peter. “[Photo] Submarine Tender USS Griffin with Unidentified Submarines (Possibly USS Piranha, USS Lionfish, USS Moray, USS Devilfish, or USS Hacklebak), Midway Atoll, 26 Aug-1 Sep 1945.” WW2DB, ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=16856.  

Griffin, www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/g/griffin.html.  

“Indiana University.” “Charles Herbert Broshar”, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/archivesphotos/results/item.do?itemId=P0067284.  

“NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive.” Submarine Tender Photo Index (AS), www.navsource.org/archives/09/36/3613.htm.  

H228: Creating Archival Stories #5

We continue to share some of the student work from a recent course collaboration! This semester, University Archives Director Dina Kellams worked with Ron Osgood’s Honors H228: Creating Archival Stories course. For one of their assignments, students were asked to select an IU affiliate from the Archives War Service Register records and dig into their story. Due to COVID, students were not able to visit the Archives so all research was done online, largely through free or subscription services available to them through IU Libraries, and the students did a marvelous job. Hope you enjoy these samples of student work and the stories they discovered!

Frank Elliott by Sam Jones

Junior Frank Elliott, Class of 1931, pictured with the rest of the Rushville High School varsity basektball team (1930). His section reads: Frank Elliott ’31, Forward: “Frank was a constant scoring threat to every team the Lions came up against this season. He is one of the best forwards in this locality and the next year should be one of the best in the state. He also has a ‘dead eye’ for foul shots.”

Who was Frank Vernon Elliott? And how did he go from a small town in Indiana to ending up in England just years after graduating college? Born in about 1914, Frank Elliott was raised Rushville, Indiana, by his parents Mr. and Mrs. William Elliott. Rushville is a small city in rural Indiana about 1-hour east of Indianapolis. Coming from a small area of only about 5,000 residents, Frank Elliott made the most of opportunities to get involved in anything he could at a young age. In his high school days, he participated in many different extracurriculars, including Rushville High School’s varsity basketball team, football team, and agricultural club. He came from a family of two older brothers who previously dominated the sports scene at Rushville High School, however, Frank was arguably the best talent the school had seen. After graduating from Rushville High School in 1931, he took time off from school before later enrolling at Indiana university in the year 1937. 

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Newsclipping from the Carthage Citizen, May 4, 1945.

Frank Elliott enrolled at Indiana University Bloomington to continue his studies with a focus in business. He matriculated September 9th of 1937 and received his Bachelor of Science in Business on June 2nd of 1941. With World War II beginning in the year 1939, it is certain that times were tough, confusing, and stressful for the student population of college students across the nation. The war very well influenced the future generation of college grads, giving opportunities to enlist in the military and make a difference in the war efforts. Frank Elliott was one of these students who had to make tough decisions on how to proceed with his future after graduation. According to his hometown newspaper, the Carthage Citizen, after graduating from Indiana University, Frank Elliott worked as a “paper drying and trimming machine operator for the Container Corporation of America.” After his time in the workforce, Frank ultimately made the decision to  enlist in the military in the beginning of 1943. 

Robert E. Janes (left) and Frank Vernon Elliott (right) inspecting ammunition for a fighter plane, circa 1942.

Elliott enlisted in the military in the midst of WWII. Military records show that he was an ordnance flight chief in Col. Kyle L. Riddle’s 479th fighter group of the 2nd air division. Known as “Riddle’s Raiders,” the group commanded its first combat mission in England in May 1944. Riddle’s Raiders were a part of the Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) and served as the center point of America’s heavy bomber force, a key group in the Allies war efforts at the time. Elliot’s role in the squadron was to conduct regular inspections of both ammunition and bombs for P-51 Mustang fighter planes. In addition to this role, Sgt. Frank Elliott also performed weekly checkups of firearms, tactical weapons, and various supplies belonging to enlisted soldiers and officers. His air force squadron, stationed across the Atlantic Ocean in England, was commended for the part it played in making it possible for the destruction of 43 enemy aircraft and the damaging of 23 others on a German-held airdrome. Sgt. Elliott’s flight group also played a role in both the Normandy invasion, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe, in June 1944, as well as the Battle of the Bulge, the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II, from December 1944 to January 1945.  

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Newsclipping from the Rushville Republican newspaper, July 14, 1944.

To add to his resume of serving in key battles for the Allied forces, Sgt. Frank Elliott earned recognition through multiple awards and medals. According to the Rushville Republican Newspaper issued in 1944, he was “awarded the Good Conduct medal for fidelity and faithful performance of duty at his Eighth AAF Fighter station in England”. In addition to this award, it was reported that he wore the E-A-ME ribbon alongside five bronze battle stars. 

When reflecting on one’s life from the past, many of their achievements, accolades, information, and overall acknowledgement of success can be absent. Through using the IU libraries and archives, what was thought to be lost information about Elliott turned out to be impactful knowledge and insight about his time both in school and in the armed services. Frank Vernon Elliot, once a buried name in the IU registrar’s list from the early 1900s, is now a recognized name for his achievement in high school and college as well as his selfless dedication to the military in World War II. 

Bibliography 

479 Flying Training Groupwww.cnic.navy.mil/regions/cnrse/installations/nas_pensacola/about/tenant_commands/air_force/479_FTG.html

Ancestry Library Edition. ancestrylibrary.proquest.com/. 

“Archives Online at Indiana University.” Indiana University War Service Register, 1920-1946, webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/findingaids/view?doc.view=entire_text&docId=InU-Ar-VAD4127. 

“Historical Newspapers from 1700s-2000s.” Newspapers.com, newscomwc.newspapers.com/. 

Hoosier State Chronicles: Indianas Digital Historic … newspapers.library.in.gov/. 

“Indiana University.” Media Collections Online, media.dlib.indiana.edu/. 

The Golden Book, goldenbook.iu.edu/.