Indiana University and South African Divestment

Cover art, Born a Crime by Trevor Noah

Late this summer, I was contacted by colleagues in the Kelley School of Business. The Kelley Common Read book was going to be Trevor Noah’s Born a Crime – did the University Archives have anything that could bring Noah’s story closer to home?  

I knew a little bit about the movement to get Indiana University to divest from South African companies in the 1980s to protest apartheid, but I had never taken the time to dig into the whole story and was eager for this opportunity. What I learned was – oh my goodness, YES, we have a TON related to South African divestment, student protests, and the work of faculty and staff to move toward a more thoughtful and ethical investment strategy in South Africa.  

First, What is Apartheid? 

Simply put, apartheid was a system of institutionalized racism that was in place in South Africa for nearly 50 years from the late 1940s until the early 1990s. It put South Africa’s minority white population in power in every sense of the word. Segregation in every area of life was staunchly enforced; Black residents of the country were required to always carry an internal passport; the ethnicity of a person dictated where they could live, who they could marry, whether they could vote, where they could go to school, etc. Noah’s book provides readers with a glimpse of what it was like to grow up both under this kind of oppression and as “a crime” – the product of a Black mother and white father.  

Indiana University & Divestment: 1970s 

In Indiana University records from the late 1970s, we see evidence that students, staff, and faculty were really beginning to take notice of apartheid and South Africa, and they objected to Indiana University profiting from the brutality of the system through investments with companies that did work in the country. They added their voices to calls coming from throughout the U.S. to eliminate investments in South Africa, hopeful that loss of money would pressure its leaders to end minority rule.  

In a November 10, 1977, Indiana Daily Student article, reporter John Butwell dug deep into the work of three IU student groups working on the university’s and the IU Foundation’s divestment of more than $5.7 million in South African companies. (N.B. – the Foundation is separate from the University and serves as its fundraising arm.) The active groups included the Student Coalition Against Racism (SCAR), the Bloomington South Africa Committee, and the Black Christian Student Fellowship, though they had the support of several other student organizations on campus, including the Latin Alliance of Midwest America (ALMA). They worked together to collect signatures for a petition demanding IU’s divestment.  

Protestors with signs and one with a bullhorn. Caption says, "Chanting and marching, bundled against the cold, approximately 120 I.U. students marched in protest of I.U.'s investment in businesses with South Africa holdings. The amrch across campus ended at the Indiana Memorial Union where the board of trustees was meeting."
Image of protestors from February 6, 1978 IDS article “I.U. holdings in South Africa protested with demonstration.”

The response at the time, according to Butwell’s article, was that IU officials felt that their divestment would have little effect on the companies’ policies, given how small their investments were in the grand scheme of things. Even IU’s beloved Herman Wells, then University Chancellor but also a member of the IUF investment committee, told Butwell that before he considered divestment, he’d want to know more about the extent of U.S. companies’ holdings in South Africa, saying, “I read somewhere that many companies listed as being in South Africa don’t actually manufacture there, but just sell small amounts of goods there.” (That was indeed the case, Butwell’s research showed.) 

But also, some argued, it was possible these U.S. companies could make headway in undermining apartheid by adhering to what was known as the Sullivan Statement or Sullivan Principles, developed in 1977 by U.S. Civil Rights leader and General Motors board member Reverend Leon Sullivan. The Sullivan Statement was a pledge for corporate responsibility – for companies to use nondiscriminatory employment practices, to train Blacks for more highly skilled jobs and to improve Black workers’ health, housing, education, recreation and transportation facilities. (In 1999, Sullivan helped unveil the updated and expanded corporate code of conduct known as the “Global Sullivan Principles.”). Butwell’s article shared that of the 40 South African companies with which IU and the IUF invested, only six had signed the statement as of April 1977. Response from the IU Board of Trustees was mixed, with some members saying yes, social effects of IU investments should be considered, but ultimately their obligation to IU should come first. Trustee Carolyn Gutman, however, told Butwell, “There are always many thousands of kinds of investments to make – it seems we could invest in something which did not have serious political ramifications, even if the (political) investment had an amazingly large return.”  

The trustees had an opportunity to learn, as members of the University Faculty Council organized a seminar for the purpose of educating them about apartheid in the spring of 1978. The information presented at the seminar must have been compelling (perhaps coupled with campus protests and continued pressure by the IU community), as by June of that year, the trustees had approved a new policy surrounding investments in countries doing business in South Africa. The policy, however, fell short of outright divestment. Rather, it recognized the concerns of the University community and affirmed that the University would place pressure on corporations to adopt a corporate code of conduct (whether it be the Sullivan Statement, the European Economic Community codes of conduct or the equivalent). If companies failed to do so, IU would then divest and make no further investments in the corporation until such steps were taken.  

So progress, but the IU community continued to keep an eye on the situation in South Africa and maintain pressure on university leaders.  

Indiana University & Divestment: 1980s 

In 1985, campus activity regarding South Africa and apartheid made headlines again as the IU Student Association (predecessor to IU Student Government) adopted a resolution denouncing apartheid and called upon IU to once again reconsider its investments. Additionally, IUSA asked that the University advise the federal government of IUSA’s concerns and urge lawmakers to end all US involvement in South Africa until apartheid ended. 

Behind O'Meara and Bareikis is a sign that says "Forum on Investment Options."
Screen capture from forum video. Patrick O’Meara on left, Robert Bareikis (?) just behind him

One result from the resolution was an educational forum about apartheid that once again focused on educating IU’s trustees about the issues. Organization of the forum largely fell to Professors Robert Bareikis (Germanic Studies) and Patrick O’Meara (African Studies) – the latter born and raised in South Africa until the 1960s. Together with student leaders and other faculty, they planned the day long “Investment Responsibilities in South Africa: A forum for The Indiana University Board of Trustees,” held September 20, 1985. It was broadcast throughout the Indiana University system and at IU Bloomington, it could also be watched on the big screen at the IU Auditorium. Speakers for the day included South Africans Dumisani Kumalo and Bishop Desmond Tutu (via telephone), Ford Motor Company’s William Broderick, Congressman and House Subcommittee on Africa Chair Howard Wolpe and more. At the forum, 1984’s Nobel Peace Prize recipient Bishop Tutu emphasized the importance and necessity of outside governments to help end apartheid, telling the IU audience, “I myself believe that our last chance for reasonably peaceful change in South Africa will lie in the attitude and action of the international community.”  

COOL RESOURCE ALERT! Through the efforts of IU’s Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative, tapes of this event have been digitized and are freely available in Media Collections Online!  

Faculty and student groups provided university administrators with recommendations on how to move forward with South Africa but there was still a great deal of concern from IU’s leaders about balancing the university’s fiduciary responsibilities with moral responsibilities. Trustee Joseph Black told IDS reporter Leah Lorber, “I’m terrified about divesting from Eli Lilly. They’ve given us close to $50 million for (IU-Purdue University at Indianapolis) in the last 10 years. You stop and think all that Lilly’s done for us….If I were a corporate executive in these corporations, I would think ‘Indiana doesn’t want us around.’” (IDS, “Divestment could affect recruiting, scholarships,” October 29, 1985) 

At their November 1, 1985 meeting, the Board of Trustees once again voted against total divestment of South African companies. Instead, in an updated policy, they laid out a list of expectations for companies who were required to respond through submission of a written acknowledgement of compliance. The IU Treasurer was charged with reviewing the acknowledgements and providing the Investment Committee with recommendations regarding investment or divestment.   

Shantytown in Dunn Meadow. Photo by Garrett Ewald of the Indiana Daily Student, April 13, 1986. IU Archives P0029022

Students continued to keep an eye on the University’s work in this area, and in April 1986, a group of about forty students organized in Dunn Meadow and began to erect shanties. The shanties, according to IDS reporter Melinda Stevenson, were “meant to resemble the bantustans in which the apartheid system forces many South African blacks to live.” (IDS, “Few witness shanty dismantling,” December 2, 1986). Throughout the month, students staged protests and erected additional shanties. When Little 500 weekend came around, protestors and the IUSA distributed yellow armbands, asking students to wear them throughout the weekend to raise awareness of apartheid. Despite vandalism and threats, protestors remained in the Dunn Meadow “Shantytown” through the school year, summer, and into the next fall semester. The Assembly Ground Advisory Committee, formed by IU’s Dean of Students Michael Gordon, recommended the University allow protestors to remain but in December, the protestors begin disassembling the Shantytown with plans to move their protest efforts indoors through a series of debates at the residence halls.  

In the following years, campus groups continued their work to encourage the trustees to take stronger actions. In April 1989, the IUSA and the IU Anti-Apartheid Committee submitted a “Report to the Indiana University Trustees on the Issue of Divestment from South Africa.” The report outlined the problems with IU’s policy on South Africa, gave a timeline of significant events in South Africa from 1986-1988, and provided excerpts of South African policies of fellow Big Ten universities, which indicated several had already moved to complete divestment while others were well on their way.  

And into the 1990s 

Art shows Black woman with head covering and dollar sign behind her.
Art from IDS “Point/Counterpoint” column, Indiana Daily Student, February 16, 1990.

In a February 16, 1990 “Point/Counterpoint” column for the IDS, trustee Harry Gonso explained the steps the trustees had taken to that point to hear arguments from both sides of divestment. He wrote that the board wanted to speak out against apartheid and that it indeed “justified the adjustment of the normal investment criteria.” But to pull completely out would have meant they had spoken out only once; by moving forward with companies, they could communicate to these U.S. companies “that as one of the finest universities in the world, we cared about their social responsibility, we expected them to combat racism in South Africa, and we wanted reports as to their activities in South Africa…had we divested or disinvested, we would have spoken just once saying, in effect, that we were against apartheid and we wanted to contribute to the dismantling of U.S. involvement in South Africa (never mind that the vacuum would be immediately filled by investors from Japan, Germany and elsewhere). Thereafter, having said that, our ability as a shareholder to communicate our opinions and values would have been gone.” 

In his “Counterpoint” article, student Joe Kulbeth, chairperson for IUSA’s Anti-Apartheid Committee, recognized that IU had made progress. In 1982, it had $5 million invested in companies doing business in South Africa. At the time of writing, IU had reduced its investments to under $900,000 in eight companies (total university investments were approximately $55 million). But he called for IU to finish its work and direct the money elsewhere. 

Gonso and the trustees were once again listening, it seems. In April he shared the draft of a new trustees policy with IUSA President Jerry Lee Knight. The policy addressed both direct and indirect investments and how they would approach each of these. For direct investments, IU would not only ensure that companies had a statement of principle for working in South Africa but also that the product or service produced by the company would benefit ALL people of South Africa. Further, the products could only be “benign” in nature – no automobiles, trucks, guns, ammunition or similar products that could be used by the South African military. Knight, however, told the IDS that he thought the new policy was possibly weaker than the 1985 policy, noting “I’m almost afraid that it’ll open loop holes that trustees in the future can take advantage of.” (IDS, “IU rethinks apartheid investment,” May 5, 1990). The policy went forward and was approved at the June 9, 1990 Board of Trustees meeting. While the students may have continued to have misgivings, the Indianapolis Business Journal held up IU’s new policy as “worth imitating.” (IBJ, “IU’s new investment policy re: South Africa is worth imitating,” May 14-20, 1990) 

The End of Apartheid 

Nelson Mandela, imprisoned in South Africa in 1962 for his role in attempting to overthrow the apartheid government, was released in 1990 amid growing domestic and international pressure to release him. It was one of the first steps taken by South African President Frederik Willem de Klerk to begin dismantling the system of apartheid in his country. There were several years of negotiations, but apartheid officially came to an end in 1994 with Mandela, representing the African National Congress, elected South Africa’s new president.  

In 2013, the Board of Trustees voted to revoke and rescind several policies that were no longer relevant to or affecting the University, which included the 1985 “Policy on Investments in Corporations Which Have Business Operation in South Africa” as well as its 1990 amendment.  

This is obviously a very broad overview of a very complicated subject that included many other players and important events on campus. As I worked with our Kelley colleagues, I scanned a lot of the documents I came across for their use in Kelley events, including those cited in this post. They are freely available in a OneDrive folder at https://go.iu.edu/43Vq. File names include the collection or accession number, along with the folder title, when applicable. Several items had been previously digitized, such as the IUSA resolutions and Bloomington Faculty Council documents and can be found in a separate folder. As always, please do reach out with any questions or if you would like to view any of these materials in person!  

Frances Morgan Swain and the League of Extraordinary (IU) Women

After 110 years of existence, the IU Student Building is being renamed in honor of Frances Morgan Swain (Miller). But wait, what’s so special about this lady?

Photograph of Frances Morgan Swain, circa 1887-1889
Frances Morgan Swain, circa 1887-1889. Note her pins from Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and Kappa Alpha Theta sorority.

Frances “Fannie” Hannah Morgan was born in Knightstown, Indiana, in 1860. Her family appears to have been reasonably well-off (her father, Charles D. Morgan was, by turns, a lawyer, banker, and state representative), and they were members of the Fall Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends in Henry County. It is unclear when Frances met Joseph Swain, who was by turns a student (B.L.1883, M.S. 1885), professor of mathematics (1887-1891), and president (1893-1902) of Indiana University. One account by the Bloomington Courier stated that they met as students at Indiana, but there is no record of Frances’s attendance before 1887. What is certain is that they were married in September 1885, presumably after connecting over their joint Quaker heritage. And love of mathematics. Keep reading–you’ll see.

Compared to the women who preceded her as “first lady” of Indiana University, Frances was hardly the conventional president’s wife. Unlike her predecessors, she actually attended Indiana University, completing junior-level mathematics coursework over two years. She began her studies in 1887, the same year that Joseph was appointed an associate professor in the department. Even more unusual was that she did so as a married woman. She began studying in 1887, the same year that Meadie Hawkins Evermann became IU’s first married female graduate. Swain’s education took a detour when her husband was invited to join the faculty of the newly formed Stanford University in 1891–she completed her A.B. in Mathematics there in 1893.

Perhaps the most significant difference between Frances and her predecessors was her public and active commitment to effecting change on campus. When the Swains returned to Bloomington, Joseph as the new university president, Frances completed some graduate-level mathematics coursework, but soon turned her interests to the welfare of students, especially women, at the university. The historian Thomas Clark describes President Swain’s era at IU as one of rapidly increasing enrollments, which proved particularly challenging in the area of housing for female students–there was no women’s dormitory at the time, and private housing options in town were limited. Women arrived on campus from “strict homes…bound down by admonitions, taboos, and inhibitions,” and there were few means of support beyond sororities to “safely” navigate their new environment. Frances’s answer to the problem was the organization of a “Women’s League” dedicated to the self-improvement of its members as well as improving conditions for women on campus and in the Bloomington community.

Group photograph of IU Women's League officers, 1896
The officers of the IU Women’s League, as pictured in the 1896 Arbutus. Frances Morgan Swain is looking straight ahead in the center of the group.

Founded in 1895, the IU Women’s League was composed of women serving in various capacities on campus, including faculty, wives of faculty, members of campus clubs and sororities, and “unrepresented” female students–students who did not belong to a sorority or other club that provided housing or a support system. It provided educational and social programming for league members and the broader campus and Bloomington communities, including lectures, receptions, and dramatic performances. One of the League’s first speakers was Dr. Rebecca Rogers George, an Indianapolis physician who became a longtime, non-resident lecturer on female physiology and hygiene for the university. Over the years a variety of other speakers, including female educators, social reformers, and suffragists discussed current events and other topics of interest. Over time the mission of the Women’s League evolved, transitioning from a social club to a form of women’s student government.

One of Frances’s (and the League’s) most significant efforts on campus was the campaign for the construction of a Women’s Building on campus. Inspired by the existence of such facilities at the University of Michigan, the University of Chicago, and other regional institutions, Frances and the Women’s League began raising funds so that female students at IU could have a building of their own. In March 1901, with $6500 in pledges under her belt, Frances appealed to the Board of Trustees to support the project, which she presented as a much-needed space for socializing, exercising, and relaxation. The Board responded with the following resolution:

Be it resolved, that the Trustees of the University most heartily endorsed the movement, presented and explained by Mrs. Swain, for the erection of a Women’s Building on the campus, and inasmuch as said building is to be erected entirely by private subscription, all friends of the University and of education generally are urged to aid Mrs. Swain and her association in their good work.

The campaign for the Women’s Building, essentially the first mass fundraising appeal by the university, ultimately found success through a generous matching donation offer by John D. Rockefeller. Sacrificed in the process, however, was the building’s status as a facility exclusively for women–it instead was built as the “Student Building,” and has remained so up until this week.

The Swains left Indiana when Joseph accepted the presidency of Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania. While the couple were doubtless as happy as, well, a pair of Quakers at a school for Quakers, their interest in the welfare of Hoosier Nation never ceased. Besides returning to campus for personal visits and university ceremonies, Frances and Joseph were the first donors to the post-World War I Memorial Fund, giving $500 each in 1921 and lobbying alumni to donate as well. In 1932, five years after Joseph died, Frances married John A. Miller, also a former faculty member of Indiana, Stanford, and Swarthmore. And a mathematics professor–see what I mean? But in Bloomington, she’ll always be remembered the most as Mrs. Joseph Swain.

As the existence of the Women’s League demonstrates, Frances Swain was not the only woman involved in promoting change on campus. The mere existence of women faculty and staff, however few, surely made a difference to the women who followed them. It is easy to overlook the legacy of women of Frances Morgan Swain’s era, when gendered social norms and expectations limited the ways they could participate in public life. The renaming of the Student Building this week is an important step to make sure they are not forgotten.

A Question of Loyalty: Controversies Surrounding All Things German at Indiana University during World War I

“President Bryan made a statement to the Board concerning the German situation at the university”—Board of Trustee Minutes, April 17, 1918.

For the past several months, I’ve been working to slowly transcribe the WWI-era hand-written minutes of the Board of Trustees for inclusion in this searchable online portal and one question has continued to weigh on me. What exactly was “the German situation”?

While the Great War raged in Europe, anti-German feelings ran high state-side and Indiana University was not exempt from coming under fire for associations with the enemy. After some investigation, the exact “German situation” is still a little vague; however, there are still some fascinating stories from the era.

C286 War Mothers letter, June 1, 1918

One of these controversies involved  the teaching of the German language. By mid-1918 enrollment in German language courses at Indiana University had declined and only two professors, Bert J. Vos and Carl Osthaus, remained on the faculty. Across the country, teaching German in the schools (including universities) became a contentious issue. In June 1918, IU President William Lowe Bryan received a letter from the War Mothers of Monroe County which argued that “one of the most fruitful sources for dissemination of insidious enemy propaganda has been through the contact of things German with our schools.” They further stated that “it is therefore RESOLVED: — That no good purpose can be served by the continuation of the teaching of German in Indiana University, that much harm may come therefrom.” President Bryan coolly responded that the teaching of German would remain  “as a means of fighting Germany.” When further questions poured in from individuals such as  Dr. Perry Dickie of the American Defense Society, President Bryan responded that “German is not required for entrance” but that “we provide a few classes in German for students who desire it.” Additionally, by the fall of 1918 students enlisted in the Student Army Training Corps were learning German for military purposes.

James McDonald portrait painting P0056332
James McDonald portrait painting

While controversy surrounded the teaching of German, two professors also found themselves at the center of the debate. History professor James McDonald found himself the subject of a Senate investigation when a German by the name of Dr. Karl A. Fuehr included him in his “important list of names” which the the Department of Justice stated were all pro-Germans.  McDonald, however, demonstrated to the Senate Investigation Committee that the accusation was erroneous and that he was a loyal American citizen, stating that “Ever since the sinking of the Lusitania I have not merely privately but also publicly both in class and in the press strongly advocated the entrance of the United States into the war against Germany, as my students and associates can readily testify” (from a letter to the Chairman of Senate Investigating Committee, December 11, 1918). McDonald would go on to work first for the League of Nations and then for President Roosevelt’s Advisory Committee on Political Refugees in Europe. He recognized early on the danger the Jewish people faced from Hitler. McDonald would also become the first US Ambassador to Israel.

Zeuch002
Hopkinton Iowa Leader, November 8, 1917

The second and most controversial case was that of Professor William Zeuch. A young Iowan, Zeuch was hired in 1917 to teach economics at Indiana University. In November of 1917, Zeuch had replied to an Iowan newspaper’s anti-German statements, stating that the newspaper was printing propaganda and because the recent German atrocities were not unique to Germans as a race, the newspaper was thus offending German-Americans.

Newspaper's reply
Newspaper’s reply

The newspaper replied by thoroughly denouncing Zeuch. News spread to Bloomington, where Zeuch found himself under investigation by the Monroe County Council of Defense and a committee of professors at the University. The Bloomington Indiana Daily Student on November 14 reported: “Mr. Zeuch affirms that he had no intention of being disloyal or unpatriotic when he wrote the letter to the Hopkinson Leader. He said to a representative of The Student that he had been incensed at the attempts which have been made to arouse hatred against the German race, but that he wished to condemn its autocracy.” Newspapers across the state reported on the scandal and Zeuch was asked to resign from his position. He did and joined the Army, from which he was honorably discharged in 1918. After the war, Zeuch co-founded a short-lived college in Arkansas, Commonwealth College, with a program that reflected his sentiments for socio-economic reform.  He was also a Guggenheim fellow in the 1930s and worked for the Department of the Interior.

Zeuch co-founded a short-lived college in Arkansas, the Commonwealth College, with a program that reflected his sentiments for socio-economic reform.

To learn more about either of these incidents or more about Indiana University during WWI, contact the IU Archives.

Executive Actions: Minutes of the Indiana University Board of Trustees

Official Record Establishing the Indiana University Board of Trustees.
The official charter for the Indiana University Board of Trustees, written in 1838. Click on the image to see the full 6-page document.

An act to establish a University in the State of Indiana [Approved Feb. 15th, 1838]

Sec. 1st. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana that there shall be, and hereby is created and established a University adjacent to the town of Bloomington in the County of Monroe for the education of youth in the American learned and foreign languages, the useful arts, sciences (including law and medicine) and literature, to be known by the name and style of “Indiana University,” and to be governed and regulated as herein after directed.

Sec. 2nd. There shall be a Board of Trustees appointed consisting of twenty one persons, residents of this State, who shall be hereby and constituted a body corporate and politic by the name of “the Trustees of Indiana University”….

So reads the first lines of what exists today from the IU official record transforming the former “Indiana College” to “Indiana University” – the prior minutes dating to 1820 were lost in the fire of 1883. These minutes of the Board of Trustees contain a wealth of historical information in regards to the operation of the university detailing the projects, finances, personalities, and goals that have shaped its existence.

    A Unique Partnership

Because this official record contains such insight into the history of the unviersity, a number of years ago a decision was made to bring them to the web through a cooperative project between the IU Digital Library Program, the Board of Trustees, and the University Archives, allowing for instant access and search capability. The site can be found here: Minutes of the Board of Trustees. The official hard-copy minutes (shown to the right) are still available at the University Archives, where researchers are welcome to view these valuable documents.

Board of Trustees Meeting Book
A Board of Trustees Meeting Book.

Minutes prior to 1981 have been scanned and made readable via Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology; present-day minutes are word processed and delivered ready to be formatted for the web.  All minutes are encoded into TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) using the XML editor <oXygen/>.  Working backward chronologically, the Minutes are written in TEI and then made available on the web.  The Board of Trustees site is fully searchable—one can search all online minutes or can choose to search within a specific meeting or period. At present, minutes from present-day to mid-1957 are accessible online.

As the Board of Trustees (BoT) project encoder, I have worked with the minutes since August of 2010.  In order to maintain the integrity of the minutes, I seek to duplicate each meeting as closely as possible in its online counterpart.  In addition to present-day meetings, I have worked primarily through meetings dating from December of 1959 to early 1957.  At the moment, I find myself encoding the meeting of February 18, 1957.  Traveling in reverse from meeting to meeting has its peculiarities—I often know the result of an issue before I know of the issue’s existence.  The experience is akin to beginning a book at the last chapter, reading that chapter, and then jumping back to read the previous chapter, and so on.  However, the material is always engaging and each discussion point, regardless of importance large or small, is given good context.

Lilly Library Under Construction, 1958
Lilly Library construction began in 1957 and was dedicated in 1960. This photo was taken in 1958.

I feel I may declare some slight expertise on University operations in the last years of the 1950s after my time on this project.  From 1957 to 1959, IU underwent massive change, assumed great challenges, and strove for increased prominence.  The University continued to expand, not only in Bloomington but across the state.  During these years, the Gary Center and Fort Wayne Center, now IU Northwest and IPFW, became important components of IU’s statewide system.  In Bloomington, the Board of Trustees oversaw the purchase of many homes and property in order to make room for campus expansion.  The Fine Arts Building and Lilly Library received funding and came into being.  A new football staff arrived in 1957; most of the staff had left the university by 1959.  Of course, not all additions are as noticeable as a shiny new building or changes in athletics.  For example, the University purchased the personal papers of Upton Sinclair during this time; see the May 18, 1957 minutes for details.

1964-65 Board of Trustees Members
Members of the 1964-65 Indiana University Board of Trustees

These are but a few examples of events from a short three-year period.   Indiana University continues to move forward and the Board of Trustees has overseen it all.  Each meeting offers something of interest to those researching the history of Indiana University, the city of Bloomington, or the state of Indiana.  Anyone interested in these histories will certainly find noteworthy items in the Minutes of the Board of Trustees.  Whether one chooses to use the original paper records or the online site, I hope you enjoy studying the Minutes as much as I have enjoyed working with them!

By Neal Harmeyer, Board of Trustees project encoder