Crawford Papers

I did not immediately recall T. James Crawford from my high school years (yes, many years ago) but I certainly do remember his most  influential publication. As soon as I saw a copy of Century 21 Typewriting sitting in one of our archival boxes I immediately had flashbacks of my particularly vocal typing teacher calling out for my peers and I to watch our posture and directing us to repeat the various exercises until we had them down to perfection. For some this was a pleasant experience, but for those of us that had taught ourselves to type had to unlearn and learn the Crawford way. I never thought much about the individuals behind the book, but I must say what typing skills I have today, I owe to late IU professor T. James Crawford.

 Basic advice on proper typing from Crawford’s  Century 21 Typewriting

Crawford first came to Indiana University in 1942. The United States was at this point completely immersed in the Second World War and he came to assist with organizing the U.S. Naval Training School that was being developed in support of the war effort. During the short time that he was here he became the supervisor of instruction in the U.S. Navy School for Yeomen and Storekeepers as well as assisted with the development of the program for the first group of WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service).

Crawford himself was called to active duty as a supply officer for a Seabee battalion, a type of militarized construction force for the Navy, in the South Pacific. Not long after the war, in 1946, Crawford again returned to Indiana University, this time to stay. He began as a faculty lecturer in the School of Business and later become chairman of the Department of Administrative Systems and Business Education. He held this position for an impressive 15 years.

 A very welcoming article from the IDS for the newly arrived Professor Crawford.

During the late 1950s, Crawford, like many others, believed that television could play a key role in education. Crawford is habitually referred to as a pioneer in teaching on television. For some years Professor Crawford produced and taught on educational programs for both commercial and educational TV networks. The charismatic Crawford taught both shorthand and typing but it is his typing that he is best remembered as many homes had a typewriter in them and people had a desire to use them effectively.

A ‘Fan’ letter for Crawford’s instructional television show in 1957.

An undated article writing about the success of Crawford’s instructional program.

Because of his interest in students and his dedication to instruction Professor Crawford was selected as one of the 10 professors who had most influenced student lives. Eventually, he retired in the spring of 1987 and remained in Bloomington until his death in August of 2000.

The Crawford collection holds his correspondence, teaching materials and publications (which of course includes a fine copy of the Century 21 Typewriting). Contact the Archives if you would like further information about this or any of its holdings!

New! George List Papers, 1924-2008

George List in 1945, age 34.

Professor George List (1911-2008) is best remembered for his academic work on the music of the indigenous people of South America and the Southwestern United States, his professional work as Director of the Archives of Traditional Music (1954-1976), and his role in founding the ethnomusicology department at Indiana University. However, long before joining the faculty here at IU, he was a music teacher, composer, and performing musician whose works were published, recorded, and performed by symphony orchestras.

In 1933, List graduated from The Julliard School with a diploma in flute performance then going on to spend most of his early professional career as both an aspiring musician and a music educator. He established and directed the Madison Square Boys Club,

George List's self-written biography at age 22 from his Julliard Graduation Program, 1933.
a music school for underprivileged children in Manhattan from 1934-1937 where he organized a children’s performance of Haydn’s “Toy Symphony,” which, along with typical instruments like the piano and violins, uses a rattle, toy trumpet, cuckoo, nightingale, and quail as musical instruments. In addition to this project, List was a music teacher, director, and conductor for several bands and orchestras in public schools in New York City between 1939 and 1943. During this time, he was also the conductor for children’s ensembles and a private music instructor for the International Workers Order, an organization that offered insurance, medical care, and cultural activities to various ethnic groups in New York City.

Program from the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra concert in which List's Marche O'Malley was performed in 1949.

Along with his teaching, Professor List was also active as a performing flutist, playing with orchestras in New York City and Denver throughout the 1930s and 1940s.  He also found time to compose original music. His largest work is an unpublished symphonic piece titled Marche O’Malley, which was performed by the Eastman-Rochester Symphony Orchestra in 1947, the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra in 1949, and later by orchestras in Indianapolis and Bloomington.

Description of Marche O'Malley from program.





Other published titles include “Come Bring With a Noise” (1948) for mixed chorus which was based upon a poem by Robert Herrick, Jugoslav Polka for band (1950), Memoir and Scherzino for flute and piano (1950), and Music for Children (1952), a songbook for young pianists.

Jugoslav Polka for band by George List, 1950.

Throughout the course of his career, Professor List composed for all levels and types of musicians, from children beginning to play the piano to professional violinists, from choral works to woodwind quintets. While the majority of his compositions were never published, it appears that he never completely gave up his musical aspirations. When Professor List began teaching at Indiana University in 1954, and throughout his years in academia, his composing greatly slowed down, but he never fully gave it up. In 2001, 25 years after his retirement, he wrote Gadgets, which he dubbed “A Comic Opera” in three acts. Up until his death in 2008, he continued to write to publishers, record companies, and orchestra conductors, trying to get his compositions recorded or performed.

The IU Archives holds the George List papers which include the sheet music, including revisions and unpublished pieces, of Professor List’s compositions, as well as four compact disc recordings of their performance.

New! Martha McCarthy papers, 1976-2011

 Women’s History Month is an excellent time to highlight the recently processed collection of Dr. Martha McCarthy, Chancellor’s Professor Emerita of Education Leadership and Policy Studies at Indiana University. Dr. McCarthy began her career at Indiana University as Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in 1975 and after a long and prestigious career retired in 2011.
In 1978, she served as the Project Director of a team leading to the creation and implementation of a workshop and training program for the Equity for Women in Higher Education Project sponsored by the University Council for Educational Administration. The project included a one-day workshop, the goal of which was to enhance women’s equity in education.
The program was the result of a two-year grant from the staff of the Women’s Educational Equity Act to develop six training modules in hopes that they would be incorporated into university courses.

 The training materials state that, “The serious female academic confronts sexual barriers at every phase of her career, beginning with formal and informal socialization processes before she enters an institution of higher education and continuing even as she rises to a successful position in her field.” In order to combat these issues, Dr. McCarthy was responsible for creating an “Equity Goal Ranking Process” which sought to create a plan of priorities for raising awareness and creating solutions for gender inequalities in higher education. She also helped to create a casebook of reality-based scenarios about issues of discrimination faced by women in higher education. Audio tapes and slide tapes of these case studies are available in the Martha McCarthy papers in the University Archives.

The “Equity Goal Ranking Process” consists of a set of activities designed to help participants identify equity issues of major concern and devise strategies for attaining top  priority goals that could then be used in reviewing institutional policies, programs, and resource allocation. Examples of some of these equity goals include the following: “Establish salary, promotion and tenure policies that ensure equal treatment of women;” “Revise course content, class activities and student support services to eliminate sex bias;” “Develop objective policies to ensure equitable working conditions for women;” and “Provide training experiences to sensitize personnel to equity issues and existing discriminatory practices.”

Training materials also include suggestions for using the Equity Goal Rankings and Case Studies in a university course, with ideas for incorporating them into a semester-long course to create awareness of gender-based equity issues and devise strategies for eliminating biases.

Appendices includes information about conferences dealing with equity issues, opinionnaires, and pre- and post-evaluation forms.

As always, please contact the IU Archives to view the collection!

Henry H. H. Remak as Administrator – or as he put it – “a Lamb in Lamb’s Clothing”

Remak in his IAS office, 1992

Since May of 2011 I have been processing the professional papers of Henry H. H. Remak (1916 – 2009) who served Indiana University as a devoted professor, scholar and – at various points – administrator. At the end of last semester, I finished sorting this 108-box collection into groups of related materials – or series – based on Remak’s various roles at IU. This semester my work has begun on arranging and organizing each series. Last week, I finished arranging the administrative series, which highlights Remak’s diverse leadership roles. He served as chairman not only for one, but for three departments on campus – Germanic Studies (1962), Comparative Literature (1954-1963, intermittently) and West European Studies (1966-1969). Remak also served as Vice-Chancellor and Dean of Faculties (1969-1974), as well as Director of the Institute for Advanced Study(1988-1994, 1997-1998). While files from each of these diverse roles are included in the collection, for this post I’ll be focusing on Remak’s term as director of the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS).

IAS was founded in 1982 with the goal of bringing distinguished lecturers and visitors from all over the world to Bloomington in order to pursue their research and collaborate with IU faculty and students. Composer Leonard Bernstein, author Ursula K. Le Guin, and anthropologist Sir Edmund R. Leach are just a few of the noteworthy individuals that IAS has brought to IU in past years.

Remak with IAS fellow, Toru Haga, 1991

In 1988, when Remak assumed directorship of the Institute, he had already retired once. Yet, at the ripe, young age of 72 Remak was still teaching. He was also still active in his research, so what would stop him from directing “Indiana University’s leading center for the pursuit of new knowledge and new directions of inquiry in all fields of study” (Institute for Advanced Study)? In one of his “memos to fellow faculty members” – which were, without fail, characteristically enthusiastic, charming and rather lengthy – Professor Remak reassured his colleagues that he came to them “as a lamb in lamb’s clothing.” He went on to explain that his objectives were to “serve” the research needs of IU’s faculty and students, as well as “re-personalize” faculty interactions “in a university whose size and universality are great assets behind which lurks the danger of becoming a well-run bureaucracy where process is smothering substance.” During his tenure as director, Professor Remak certainly followed through with these promises by contributing to the Institute’s prolific list of fellows and visiting scholars.

Remak with Ivona Hedin of IAS and IAS fellow, Toshie Kawamoto, 1992

In 1989, Remak welcomed world-renowned semiotician, historian, and fiction author – Umberto Eco – to the Institute. In 1994 two-time nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize and spokeswoman for the Chinese Democracy Movement – Chai Ling – came to IU thanks to the Institute. Leading European chemist Lord Lewis of Newnham and Sergei Denisov, who won the prestigious Lenin Prize in Physics, are just two more examples of the high-caliber scholars that Professor Remak helped bring to IU for the benefit of faculty and students alike. While I have just listed some “big” names to give you a small sample of what kinds of fellows the Institute was able to procure, as Remak noted:

The Institute for Advanced Study stands for more than bringing ‘big shots’ to Indiana University for ephemeral headlines. We have had our share of Nobel Prize winners and other celebrities (and that is fine), but we have also had “Assistant Lecturers” and “Resident Tutors.” Titles don’t matter. What matters is the quality of thinking and how it may contribute to Indiana University.

In 1994, Henry H. H. Remak retired from directing the Institute for Advanced Study. However, it would seem that Professor Remak had quite a flexible interpretation of the term retired. In 1997 he came back to the Institute in full swing and served as Interim Director for one more year. As gratitude for his many contributions as director, in 1994 the Remak Distinguished Scholarship award was set up in his honor. Additionally, in 1991 various IAS fellows contributed to a Liber Amicorum (a book compiled to honor a respected academic while they are still living) not only to thank Remak for his contributions to IAS but to mark the occasion of his 75th birthday.

As always, Remak did his job not just as a job but as a privilege that he undertook with skill, amiability and contagious enthusiasm.

Lynton K. Caldwell papers

 Indiana University’s Lynton K. Caldwell became known as the “grandfather of biopolitics,” “the father of the environmental impact statement,” and “one of the most influential people in the entire protection movement” (Indiana Alumni, May/June 1993, p.12). He devoted his life to researching and debating environmental science. Caldwell was an Arthur F. Bentley Professor Emeritus of Political Science and professor emeritus of public and environmental affairs at IU. He held the degree of Ph. B. (Bachelor of Philosophy, 1934) and Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy, 1943) from the University of Chicago, an M.A. (Master of Arts, 1938) from Harvard University, and an LLD (Doctor of Laws, Honorary, 1977) from Western Michigan University.

Caldwell began his teaching career at IU as an assistant professor of government at IU South Bend from 1939-1944. He returned to IU Bloomington in 1965 where he taught political science as well as public and environmental affairs until his retirement in 1984. He also served on the faculty of several other institutions of higher education including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Michigan and the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to his teaching career, Professor Caldwell held staff and consulting assignments for United States Senate, Congressional Research, and the United Nations, just to name a few.

Dr. Caldwell was a recognized authority on environmental policy. One of Caldwell’s major accomplishments was the origination the environmental impact statement in the 1969 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “[The] National Environmental Policy Act, was one of the first laws ever written that establishes a broad national framework for protecting our environment. NEPA’s basic policy is to assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that could significantly affect the environment.” The legislation was signed by President Nixon at the beginning of 1970. NEPA resulted in the establishment of, among other important environmental legislation, Earth Day, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Endangered Species Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Caldwell was recognized internationally as one of the early leaders in the study of environmental policy, law and administration, and his work influenced the course of national legislation in the environmental protection movement. He continued to play an active role in environmental affairs and was the catalyst for the establishment of the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University in 1972.

Caldwell was an avid researcher and writer from 1943-1993. His collection of papers held by the University Archives includes his dissertation, “Contributions to thought on Public Administration: Hamilton and Jefferson,” (1943); over books and collaborative works including: Environmental Policy, Law, and Administration: A Guide (1979), Biocracy: Public Policy and the Life Sciences (1987), The National Environmental Policy Act: An Agenda for the Future (1998) and International Environmental Policy: Emergence and Dimensions (1984), which received the Sprout Award from the International Studies Association in 1985.

Dr. Caldwell passed away in 2006.

Interested in learning more about Lynton Caldwell or would like to access his collection? Contact the Archives!