Accessing Library Resources Off Campus

UPDATE: permanent service information about EZProxy is available on the IU Bloomington Libraries website.

On 3/24/20, IU modified its SSL VPN configurations to employ split tunneling for most users due to heightened use of VPNs. According to UITS:

“Implementation of VPN split tunneling may affect your off-campus access… Because split tunneling routes external (non-IU) traffic outside the VPN, your connection will appear to the provider as coming from a device outside the IU network; consequently, you will be denied access to resources that are reserved for IU users.

In this post, we’ll discuss the best way to access online library resources with an emphasis on how this change to IU VPNs will change your experience accessing these resources (if you use a VPN, that is).

The best way to ensure full text, free access to all the resources IU Bloomington Libraries subscribes to is to start your research journey on the IUB library website or using IUCAT, the library catalog (used by all IU campuses). Why? Because IU Bloomington pays for faculty/staff/students to have full text access to a lot of academic resources that aren’t freely available online. These resource providers make sure that all of us have proper IU credentials using three methods: IP address/network connection, proxied links (through a service known as EZProxy), or IU Login. Sometimes, your credentials will be verified without you even knowing it. This post describes, in-depth, how these processes work and why it matters.

By starting on the IUB library website, you can easily see and navigate to our full array of databases, online journals, and ebooks. Some of our most popular databases can be found in the footer of every page of the website: Footer of website showcasing some of our most popular databases

Off Campus

Accessing library resources off campus presents a different situation because you no longer have an IU Bloomington location/IP address and/or your machine isn’t connected to the IU Network, even if you’re using a VPN. In these scenarios, it is even more important to use the library website to access online resources so that the version you access is the IU-purchased version. A service called “EZprozy” is added to URLs on the library website to link you to the IU version of the resource.

Previously, when an off campus user connected to the VPN, they could access resources directly without going through EZproxy, as if they were on campus. With this change, an off-campus IUB or IUPUI user connected to the VPN will no longer be able to get to IU-purchase library resources without using EZproxy.

This is a significant change for our patrons who are not used to using EZproxy when connected to the VPN.  Please see details and instruction outlined below to access your online library resources.

Before you can access most of these online resources from off campus, you must first establish your “online identity” as a member of the IU Bloomington community. Specifically, you must be a current student, staff member, or member of the faculty.

Summary

1. Make sure you search academic journals and articles starting with a link from the Resources A-Z list. (Note that this is a list of resources for IU Bloomington: to find resources or databases for other campuses, start at each campuses’ library website.) These links are proxied through EZproxy which means that wherever you are in the world, it will take you to the IU-purchased version of that resource. Proxied links are also known as permalinks.

2.  The next step depends on whether you are using a VPN or not:

VPN: You will be directly taken into the resource.

No VPN: You will authenticate using the IU Login screen before being taken into the resource.

3. These proxied links all end with proxyiub.uits.iu.edu/ or begin with https://proxyiub.uits.iu.edu/login?url= 

In-Depth Explanation

Here are three click path journeys to get to the academic database JSTOR:

Journey #1

  1. Search for “jstor” using your favorite search engine.
  2. Click on the first result, which is likely www.jstor.org.
  3. Do a search for the article you want and click on the result.
  4. Get asked to pay for full text access.

Journey #2

  1. Do a keyword search in your favorite search engine or Google Scholar.
  2. Find an article in a journal found in JSTOR.
  3. Click on the article.
  4. Get asked to pay for full text access.

Journey #3

  1. Go to the IU libraries website.
  2. Find JSTOR in the footer of every web page OR under “J” in the Resources A-Z list.  
  3. Click on JSTOR and go to https://www-jstor-org.proxyiub.uits.iu.edu/ .
  4. If using a VPN, you’ll probably be taken directly to JSTOR. Otherwise, you might need to authenticated using IU Login.
  5. Access all the full text content IU subscribes to!

The only way you have consistent, full access to IU-purchased content is through the proxied version of the resource, as seen in journey #3. Using a regular search engine, like Google, will not route you through the proxied version of the resource to ensure you have full text access as an IU faculty/staff/student.

What about Google Scholar?

Google Scholar isn’t a database that IUB subscribes to but it is possible to access IU-purchased online resources in Google Scholar using proxied links IF you are properly authenticated. Watch this video made by the IU Libraries Teaching and Learning department to learn the two different ways to use Google Scholar to access IU-purchased online resources.

Why is it different on campus?

On campus, it is typically seamless to access many academic resources without starting on the library website because your browser recognizes and authenticates you based on your location on campus (through your IP address) and/or your machine’s connection to the IU Network. Sometimes you’ll have to use IU Login once on campus to trigger that recognition.

Getting started with scholarly research at IU Bloomington Libraries? Learn how to search with OneSearch@IU, our metasearch engine.

Sharing Links to Databases, Journals, or Articles

If you are sharing URLs to databases, journals, or articles, you need to make sure you are using a proxied version of the URL, or permalink, so that the IU person you share with can properly authenticate to access the full text resource. Each database has permalinks in different places but our linking to library resources page gives an overview and has some short videos about where to find permalinks in EBSCO databases (e.g. OneSearch@IU or Academic Search Complete) and other databases.

What’s the difference between a DOI and a permalink?

Both are a type of “persistent URL” that do not get updated or changed. A DOI (or digital object identifier) is a unique persistent identifier for a published digital object. Permalinks, unlike DOIs, have university affiliation attached to them. To make sure an IU-affiliated person can access the full text of the published digital object, the IU permalink prefix should be added to the beginning of the DOI. For example:

https://proxyiub.uits.iu.edu/login?url=

+

https://doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2020.1735520

=

https://proxyiub.uits.iu.edu/login?url=https://doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2020.1735520


Questions about accessing library resources? Research help is available via chat, email, and phone. Read full closure and virtual services information on our Library COVID-19 Updates page.

Gutenberg WordPress Editor Tutorial

What is Gutenberg?

Gutenberg is the new block-based blog post editor in WordPress. Elements including images, text, galleries, and columns are now encapsulated in blocks, which you can use to easily arrange elements up and down on the page.

What You See Is What You Get Editing (WYSIWYG)

Besides the ability to add new elements in blocks, the other key difference between Gutenberg and the classic editor is that Gutenberg is What You See Is What You Get Editing (pronounced “Wizzy-wig” – fun, right?). That means that while writing in the Gutenberg Editor you are able to see exactly what your post will look like once it is published.

Start Your Blog Post

  1. At the top of the editor, there will be a block that says “Add title”. This is the only block that cannot be adjusted around the page. Click the block and type in the title of your post.
  2. Immediately below the Title, you will see some text that says “Start writing or type / to start a block”. Hover over this text and you will see a number of options for choosing your block type. This is how you will add your first block of content.    

Add a Block

If it is your first block, you will already be prompted to select a type of block. If it’s not, you select the block you would like to add a new block before or after. Select the three vertical dot icon to see an options menu. Select either “Insert Before” or “Insert After”, depending on where you would like to place your next block.

There are several ways to select a type of block. If you want to simply add a paragraph, the simplest way to add a paragraph block is to just start typing your paragraphs.

Forward Slash Shortcut

By typing “/” into the content block, you will be prompted with a list of popular types of blocks. Select one from the list to start working in that type.

“+” Icon

If you click on the “+” Icon on the far left side of the block, then you will be prompted with a menu. At the top, you can search for a specific type of block. Below the search bar, you will see a group of most used blocks to choose from. Scroll down below the most used blocks and you will an accordion with all of the available types of blocks. You can click on an option through any of these means in order to begin working in your desired type of block.

Moving a Block Up or Down

If you would like to move a block up or down relative to other blocks, you may do so by clicking on the block you would like to move and then clicking the up or down arrow on the far left side.

Deleting a Block

To delete a block, highlight the blocks that you would like to delete and hit “backspace” on your keyboard.

Want to Learn More?

Visit WordPress’ Go Gutenberg site for a tour, FAQs, and explanations of all the different blocks.

Improving Accessibility in Our Blogs

This is a collaborative post written by Jaci Wilkinson, Head, Discovery and User Experience (DUX), and Alexis Guilbault, the Web Content Assistant in DUX.

Accessibility is a critical component of equitable, usable web content creation. There are many steps people who manage websites, social media accounts, and blogs can take to structure content for the benefit of all readers. Creators need to ensure their content is compatible with assistive technologies such as screen readers that “speak” webpages and other online information to blind readers.

In late April 2019, the DUX department audited 47 posts from IU Libraries blogs and assessed the use of three key accessibility practices. This post highlight the results and explains these three practices:

  1. embedding videos with closed captioning,
  2. strategizing content organization with heading tags, and
  3. providing descriptive captions and/or alternative text for images.

As a result of this review, we’re rolling out definitive guidelines in these three areas that we ask blog creators to follow for content created in WordPress moving forward.

Videos and closed captioning

Closed captions provide text and additional interpretive information for viewers who are hearing impaired and are also helpful to viewers who do not speak English.

While only 6 of the 47 IU Libraries blog posts had videos, 2 of the 6 did not have closed captioning available. Embedded videos need closed captioning available in the video player.

How to make embedded videos accessible

First, only embed videos that have closed captioning available. Check if a video has closed captioning by checking the “CC” button in the video player. If you make your own video and upload it to YouTube (0r another service like Vimeo), be sure to add closed captions.

For now, we cannot auto-enable closed captioning on WordPress. However, if you upload your own video to YouTube, you can auto-enable closed captioning through the Video Manager.

Headings

Content organization is critical to any work on the web, and headings play a central role in how users with and without screen readers engage with our work. Skimming is made possible for all users when headings with heading tags are used. A heading tag is a small piece of HTML code that differentiates headings and sub-headings from the rest of your content and give your blog post structure.

Screen readers preview headings with heading tags at the start of each article, ignoring text that is bolded or a larger font size. Thus, with the use of heading tags, more users are able to preview content and skim sections.

For example, look at the structure of this post. It is made more readable by use of two heading sizes. Each of the three practices we’re highlighting in this post starts with an explanation section. Then, a smaller heading distinguishes the “How to” portion of each practice.

On IU Libraries blogs, only 6 of the 47 blogs used headings. Only 2 posts using heading tags, and the other 4 bolded the text to make it appear like a heading. Headings are important to insert as signposts for readers and should indicate what a paragraph or as section is about. As mentioned above, they also facilitate skimming, allowing a user to get to the content they are looking for as efficiently as possible.

How to insert heading tags

To insert heading tags, first select the text you want to make a heading. Then, click on the drop-down menu with “Paragraph,” and select the numerical heading tag you want to add. This will add the heading tags to your post. You can see them in the “Text” tab, next to “Visual” in the GIF below. For example, for the heading below, the code would read <h2> Hello world. </h2>.

GIF of process of adding heading tags. It begins with the user typing Hello world and selecting the text. It then shows the user selecting Heading 2 and the text gets bigger.

There are six sizes of heading tags, beginning with <h1>and ending with <h6>. H1 is usually reserved for blog titles. H2 tags are used to create sections within your blog post, and H3 tags allow for easier navigation within those sections. You use heading tags in numerical order. For example, you would use H4 for creating sub sections under a section that was headed with H3.

Alternative text and captions

Alt text, or alternative text, allows screen-reading tools to describe images for users with visual impairments. Web content creators must add descriptive, useful alt text when uploading images for blog posts. Descriptive captions can take the place of alt text. Images that are mostly text, like an infographic or a poem, should include a “text version” for screen readers within the body of the blog post.

30 out of the 47 IU Libraries blogs consulted (64%) had issues with image accessibility. Some posts did not have any descriptions of images for screen readers, while some had vague captions that did not accurately communicate what is pictured.

How to add alt text and captions

To add alternative text to images or GIFS, like the one included above, click on the media you have added to your post and select the pencil or “Edit” button. Here, you will be able to add alternative text and/or a caption.

Remember that captions and alt text should not repeat information directly from the text, but, instead, should describe what the image is and what the viewer is able to see. For example, let’s say we wrote a post about the legacy of the Bloomington-classic Breaking Away. We might include this image of the movie poster.

Breaking Away Movie Poster from 1979 courtesy IMDb. The poster depicts four young men sitting on a grassy hill with the quote ‘The movie that tells you exactly what you can do with your high school diploma’ above them in the sky.
Breaking Away Movie Poster, (1979), Courtesy IMDb.

This caption describes what the image is, a movie poster, while indicating it is for the movie we are writing about, the year it was made, and the source of the image; however, it doesn’t describe what is in the image itself. To make this a better “descriptive” caption, we could add this in the alt text: “Breaking Away Movie Poster from 1979 courtesy IMDb. The poster depicts four young men sitting on a grassy hill with the quote ‘The movie that tells you exactly what you can do with your high school diploma’ above them in the sky.” This caption describes what the image is and gives the reader a sense of what the poster looks like.

A note on WHO authors blog posts

Student work is critical to the services and resources we provide. A student worker primarily wrote this blog post! But unfortunately, our blog audit showed that many posts written by students or temporary employees were less accessible than other posts. Please educate all blog creators about how to create accessible content. (Hint: this post is a great way to do it!)  This is a skill they can tout in their next job interview.

Accessibility is usability

By ensuring embedded videos have closed captioning, organizing blog posts with headings, and providing alternative text or descriptive captions for images, we can make IU Libraries Blogs more usable for all viewers. At some point, the practices outlined here will likely be compiled into a larger accessibility policy or practices document that will cover more than just library blogs. If or when that happens, this post will be updated to provide links to any new documentation.

If you have questions about the methods featured here or want to learn about other ways to make your web content more accessible, email DUX department head, Jaci Wilkinson, at wilkinj @ iu . edu. She also welcomes your feedback about these guidelines.

 

Why you should judge a book by its cover

Everyone knows the saying “don’t judge a book by its cover”. In his two Ted Talks, book designer Chip Kidd, the associate art director at Knopf, gives us a compelling reason to do so. These talks will make you think, make you laugh, make you want to read, and finally will make you look at all design in an entirely different light.

In the 2012 talk titled Designing books is no laughing matter. Okay, it is, Kidd describes the thought process that goes into creating book covers. He focuses on the importance of imagery, first impressions, and how book cover design influences the way you as the reader will perceive the story.

With his 2015 talk The art of first impressions — in design and life, Kidd gives the listeners an important lesson. That first impressions matter and our design choices (even the ones most of us never even think to notice) have an impact on how we see the world around us. He shows us how good design can grab your attention and the wrong design can leave a bad taste in your mouth.

Creating the Right Title for a Web Page

Choosing the right title is a crucial factor in helping people find and understand the content you create on the website. This applies to all content on the Libraries’ website including:

  • basic pages
  • subject posts
  • subject concentrations
  • news and events
  • PDF files

The title is used in several ways, particularly for generating the URL and for determining how your content will appear in search results (both within the Libraries’ website and in external search engines like Google).

Page URL:

Drupal automatically uses your page title to create the URL, omitting any punctuation included in the title and inserting hyphens between words. For example:

You will notice that if the page title is very long, the URL is also very long. For frequently-cited pages (for example, if the URL will be used as part of a publicity campaign, or if it is likely to be given over the phone), we recommend using a short page title, so the URL will be short as well. If that’s not possible, DRS can create an alternative URL upon request. For example, the Herman B Wells Library has the URL http://libraries.indiana.edu/wells.

If multiple items have the same title, Drupal will automatically append numbers so that the URL is unique. For example, we currently have the following on our site:

If you create a new item (page, concentration, etc.) and notice that Drupal has appended a number to your URL, you should reconsider your title!

When a URL is changed, Drupal automatically creates a redirect so that if a user has a link or bookmark to the old URL, they will be sent directly to the new one. In the Wells example above, the URL http://libraries.indiana.edu/herman-b-wells-library will still work. So don’t hesitate to edit your page title.

(NOTE: If you change your title and then change it back to the original, you will create an “infinite loop” in which the site redirects to the old title, then back to the new one, which redirects to the old one, and so on. If you are logged into the site, you will see an error message to this effect. Users who are not logged in will get an “access denied” error. If this happens, contact DRS – libweb@indiana.edu – and we can fix it.)

If you have an item for which the auto-generated URL has a number at the end, and you’ve determined that there is no longer another page with the same title – if the other page(s) have been deleted – DRS can edit the URL to remove the number upon request. A redirect will be created so that anyone who has the numbered URL linked or bookmarked won’t be left behind.

Search Results:

Title is a critical element in helping your users understand their search results and find the content that will be most helpful to them. This is especially important for subject concentrations, which do not include any descriptive summary within search results:

screenshot of website search results for "history"

“European History” gives the user a clue as to whether this link will be useful to them or not; the ones just titled “History” are a mystery until one actually clicks on them. Similarly, a concentration title of “Food” would suggest that this might be where you can find information about food availability in the libraries; “Food Studies” is much more descriptive. (Although search results are labeled with their content type, e.g. “Basic Page” or “Concentration,” these may go unnoticed or may not be meaningful to some users.)

Your title should give some context for your content. When users find your page via search, they do not have the additional context of your subject guide or division landing page to help them understand what they are looking at – they won’t know what department, unit, or subject your content refers to, so they may think it pertains to the Libraries as a whole. What does your content specifically pertain to? What is the page about? Who is it intended for?

“How to Find Science E-books” – NOT “E-books”

“Upcoming Events in the Wells Library” – NOT “Library Events”

“Contact the Discovery & Research Services Dept” – NOT “Contact Us”

Note: Titles that are too long may be truncated in search results, so keep your titles reasonably concise and put the most important keywords early in the title if possible. A maximum of 65 characters is a good goal. Subject concentration titles should be shorter – aim for four or five words at most if possible.

Additional Reading:

“Introducing Your Content: Page Titles and Headings” – Rick Allen http://meetcontent.com/blog/introducing-content-page-titles-headings/

This is an excellent, thorough overview of things to think about when creating page titles, with a higher ed focus and some helpful examples.

 

Image-ine That: Writing good “alt text” for images on the web

As the Libraries prepare to move into our new Drupal-powered website, we are also preparing to think differently about how we use images. The new site, in keeping with current trends on the Web, will be somewhat more image-heavy than the old one. Working with our colleagues in the Advancement Office, we plan to offer guidance to help content creators find and select images that will convey the tone and “brand” our website needs to communicate while being both pleasing and informative for people using the site.

Once you’ve chosen an image, you will want to consider providing “alt text” – a text alternative to the image, stored in a metadata field along with the image (any content management system, including our new Drupal system, provides for this to be entered when the image is uploaded or edited). This text is used by people who use a screen reader to “see” the site for them, and may also be useful for people on a low-bandwidth connection (perhaps in a rural area or a developing country) or even people who are browsing via mobile device who may have images turned off to save on data charges or speed up the time it takes to load web pages. Like most design techniques that can be implemented to improve web accessibility, adding alt text benefits more users than just those with disabilities!

At first glance it may seem like a simple thing to input a few words describing your image. But like all web content (and yes, alt text is content!), it’s worth taking a moment to think about how to create this text so that it will be as useful as possible. Think first about what you are trying to convey with your image. What information does a sighted person gain from it? What is the image’s purpose? As WebAIM explains in an excellent article about appropriate use of alt text, context is super-important here. What purpose does the image serve in the context of the rest of your page? A picture of cute kittens may be simply decorative, or it may be used to describe the stages of kitten development. In the former case, you may not need to provide alt text since the image is not contributing to the intellectual content of the page. In the latter, your alt text may read something like “Two-week-old kittens whose ears have not quite begun to stand up.”

Three kittens illustrate the point about using kitten pictures.
In this case, a kitten is just a kitten.
Credit: Mathias Erhart/flickr

There are some special cases when you may change your alt text depending on context, and 4 Syllables has outlined several of them. For example, what if your image has a caption? And what do you do differently if your image is actually a map?

4 Syllables has also created a great decision tree for use in developing alt text. Note that in some cases they recommend using blank alt text (alt=””), but at IU, we do expect alt text for ALL images.

decision tree - see 4 Syllables article linked above for full description
credit: 4 Syllables

Like all things related to user experience, a little thoughtfulness goes a long way when creating alt text. Take a moment to consider who’s using your content and what they’re trying to gain from it, and the effort will pay off in web content that is more accessible, more usable, more useful – in short, better for everyone!

Blogging lessons from Bruce

I stumbled across a fun article today which proves two things:

  1. It’s good to think outside the box a bit when looking for ways to build your social media presence and make it successful, and
  2. I am not the only person in the world who can take any topic and find some way to relate it to Bruce Springsteen. 🙂

(It’s actually kind of a nice article that may get you thinking about your own social media content and how you frame it. Worth a glance anyway.)

12 Most Gnarly Blogging Lessons I Learned from Bruce Springsteen” by Jenny Kay Pollock

Bruce Springsteen sharing the mic with Stevie Van Zandt
Bruce Springsteen & Stevie Van Zandt,
Louisville, 2012
photo by Anne Haines

 

Evaluating Accessibility

People today use a variety of platforms to access web content. It is important for the webpage designer to follow the appropriate web standards and guidelines to make this content accessible by all visitors. The number of guidelines and standards can be somewhat overwhelming. Luckily many types of automated web tools can help pinpoint problematic elements in a website. WAVE (web accessibility evaluation tool) is a great example of a tool that can evaluate the accessibility of a website.

To use WAVE, enter a URL in the input field on the homepage. The following page will display the website you entered to evaluate, along with icons and indicators about possible errors or problems. Red icons indicate accessibility errors, while green icons indicate accessibility features. I ran the IUB Libraries website through WAVE and the received the following summary:

wave3

Most of the errors were minor, but could be troublesome for those using screen readers. Each icon can be clicked for more information and documentation about the error or feature. WAVE is defaulted to evaluate the page with the CSS, but there is an option to only evaluate the HTML.

wave1 wave2

WAVE checks for problems based on Section 508 and WCAG 2.0 guidelines. Each error is explained, with reasoning for why it’s important and how to fix the problem. There is also a link to the official standards and guidelines for that particular problem. It is important to note that this tool cannot check for every error and it does not “certify” accessibility.

Quick and Easy Citations for Oncourse Using OneSearch@IU

The Resources section of Oncourse allows you to create lists of useful citations for your classes and other groups.  You can create new citations manually or import them from citation-management systems such as EndNote and RefWorks.  You can also import citations directly from Google Scholar and, now, from OneSearch@IU (http://libraries.iub.edu/onesearch).

There are two ways—depending on where you would like to begin the process of collecting your citations—to manage your OneSearch@IU citations in Oncourse.  To start, you will need to set up folders in the Resources section of your Oncourse class page.  You can learn about how to do that here (http://kb.iu.edu/data/avbw.html#creating).  Once you have a folder to which you can add citations, you’re ready to go!

Let’s start, first, in OneSearch, and add your citations to a folder. You’ll notice the records in your search results list now feature an “Import into Oncourse.”  Click this button for any citation you’d like add to your Oncourse folder.

Import_into_Oncourse

And if you click on an individual record, you can find the same button here:

Import_into_Oncourse2

After importing, follow these steps to add the selected citation to a designated folder in Oncourse:

  1. In the dropdown menu next to your preferred folder, click the “Edit Citation List.”
  2. Click the “Add Citations to List” button.
  3. Click the “Citations Clipboard” button.
  4. Select the preferred citation, then click the “Add” button.
  5. Click the “Review Citation List” button to find the citation in the designated folder, or click “Done Editing List” if you are done.

Watch the video below to see this task performed, or follow this link.

Unable to display content. Adobe Flash is required.
You can also begin this process from within the Resources section of Oncourse.   Just follow these simple steps.

  1. In the dropdown menu next to your preferred folder, click the “Edit Citation List.”
  2. Click the “Add Citations to List” button.
  3. Click the “Search OneSearch@IU” button.
  4. Search OneSearch for a citation you’d like to add; once found, click the “Import into Oncourse” button.
  5. Back in Oncourse, click the “Review Citation List” button to see your citation, or click “Done Editing List” if you are done.

Watch the video below to see this task performed, or follow this link.


Unable to display content. Adobe Flash is required.
You can find more information about working with citations at the IU Knowledge Base.

Take Me Back, Wayback

Ever get frustrated with the organization and design of your website? Do you feel like you aren’t making progress during a revamp? Put the URL of the website in the “Wayback Machine” and marvel at the how the website has evolved and changed to become more aesthetically pleasing and usable.

Wayback Machine is a “digital time capsule” created and maintained by the Internet Archive. The archived data comes from “crawls” – computer programs that browse and collect data from the Internet in automation. The collected data does not include information restricted by a publisher or stored in a database. Websites also have the ability to opt out so as not to be included in search results.

When you first open up Wayback Machine, type in the URL and press “Take Me Back”. You will then have the option to pick a year and specific date. You can also see how many times the website has been crawled and the date of the first time it was crawled. Not every website is available on this archive, nor every date. Some websites may have changed in design, but others, like Google, have some of the same basic organization.

wayback

As of January 2013, Wayback Machine has information of over 240 billion URLs and over 3 petabytes of data. Although this service has been questioned for legality purposes and copyright laws, it has become especially useful for web designers, and lawyers have even attempted to use some of the archived pages as evidence of a crime. For more information on how Wayback Machine works, visit their FAQ page.