IUSW Chalk Talks Explain Information Creation in Academia

IUScholarWorks houses course materials for numerous lectures and seminars across campus. While this content is typically created for a specific class discussion, many of these materials are continually applicable to students outside of the course they were originally created for. One collection of course materials that is particularly useful for research and information literacy instruction in all disciplines is the EDUC-L700 Course Materials collection. This collection consists of seven chalk talks related to information creation in academia, designed by Dr. Beth Samuelson and librarians Julie Marie Frye and Sarah Hare. The conversations highlighted in these videos relate directly to the work we do in the Scholarly Communication Department and provide a great introduction to the development of open access initiatives in higher education. Specifically, the fifth, sixth, and seventh chalk talks investigate the role of journals in academia and how the journal publishing environment has impacted information access over time. 

Video 5 Journals in Higher Education discusses the history of journal publishing and how higher education’s reliance on high-impact journal publishing has affected the evolution of this ecosystem. High-impact journals play a crucial role in faculty and institutional evaluation. An academic’s reputation and case for tenure improves when they publish in a top tier journal. Their university also benefits through improved institutional rankings, which leads to a stronger reputation and higher enrollments. Unfortunately, some publishers have now exploited this need in higher education.

Video 6 Inequities in the Ecosystem explains that while publishers enhance journal articles through editing, typesetting, and indexing and warrant compensation for this work, they have built a business model on scholarly works that have been submitted, reviewed, and edited at no cost to them. They have been able to then sell these works back to institutions for extremely high prices through library subscriptions. Moreover, they often restrict how authors can use their work, usually through publishing agreement terms and paywalls. This expensive content is only accessible by select institutions, creating disparities in information access even  in higher education. Additionally, this content is often impossible to obtain by community members not associated with an institution due to its price. This has created a space in which information inequity and privilege exist. 

Video 7 Transforming the Information Ecosystem highlights how, in the past two decades, institutions have reconstructed this narrative and used their power to promote inclusive access to information. Many government officials, administrators, faculty, librarians, and students are now working together to create models and incentives that both transform scholarly publishing and change the disparity dynamic to create a more equitable information ecosystem. Specifically, many institutions are embracing open scholarship practices to challenge this information inequity. At IU, we have implemented numerous open access policies and initiatives to create barrier-free information access, including:

Most recently, IUB Libraries and IUPUI Libraries, with support from the Women’s Philanthropy Leadership Council (WPLC), have created a Course Material Transformation Fellowship Program for instructors interested in adopting or creating affordable course materials. In addition to getting involved with any number of IU’s open access initiatives, faculty are encouraged to publish their works open access, use OA publications in their courses, and empower students to use open access materials in their assignments and research. Each of these actions will shift the unbalanced journal publishing environment mentioned in Video 5 and combat the inequalities in information access discussed in Video 6. You can find these chalk talks, along with others in the collection in IUScholarWorks. For more information about the open scholarship services available to IU affiliates, visit our website or contact us at IUSW@indiana.edu

Securing Image Rights for your Publication

Scholarly publications often include images. From reproductions of fine art to scientific graphs, images can enhance an author’s work in many ways. Most publishers require images with a resolution of at least 300 ppi, so using clear, high quality images is imperative. However, there are many copyright and intellectual property concerns when using images, and the process of obtaining permission can be complicated and can require a large amount of time and occasionally money from the author. The following blog post provides a walk-through, as well as tips and resources, for obtaining image permissions. We suggest following a four-step procedure to facilitate the process of securing image use permission: 

  1. Identifying permission needs
  2. Identity the rights owner
  3. Identify the rights needed
  4. Contact the owner and negotiate if necessary

As copyright and terms of reuse can vary greatly per image, the permissions attainment process begins with identifying your permission needs.

Identifying Permission Needs

Not all images require written permission for use. An image can be freely used if it is in the public domain, has a Creative Commons (CC) license, or qualifies for fair use. In general, all works first published in the United States before 1925 are part of the public domain. Cornell University’s Public Domain Chart provides a clear and thorough resource for determining if  an image first published in the United States is in the public domain. A list of other countries’ copyright durations is available from Wikipedia. Keep in mind that even if a work is public domain, an image of that work is not necessarily in the public domain. For example, while the works of Shakespeare are in the public domain, a museum’s image of a particular folio may have different rights. Be sure to confirm that your image, and not just the original work, are in the public domain. 

One way to do this is to check for the Public Domain Mark:

The letter "C" inside a circle with a slash-through (Public Domain Mark)

The Creative Commons public domain designation enables them to donate their work to the public domain. If the image you wish to use is marked with a Creative Commons license, you do not need to ask permission to use it in your publication. 

There are also many different types of CC licenses, so be sure to determine the use parameters of your specific CC-licensed image. These include Attribution (BY), ShareAlike (SA), NoDerivs (ND), NonCommercial (NC), and various combinations thereof. The Creative Commons’s webpage provides information about each CC license to clarify and differentiate between the various CC licenses. 

Use of an image for purposes of criticism, commentary, research, or teaching might also qualify as a fair use, an overview and definition of which can be found on the U.S. Copyright Office’s Fair Use Index webpage, is a fact-dependent limitation on the exclusive rights of copyright owners. For additional guidance on whether your use of an image is a potential fair use, refer to the IU Libraries guide on fair use, or contact the Head of the Libraries’ Copyright Program, Naz Pantaloni (nazapant@indiana.edu)

Asking for Permission

The first step in asking for permission is to identify the rights owner. Keep in mind that the creator and the rights owner are not necessarily the same. Sometimes the rights owner will be clearly marked. For example, if the image’s metadata reads “Copyright 2020, Indiana University Press”, then you would contact Indiana University Press to request permission. Others are more difficult, and require some research to determine the rights owner. Tips for researching the rights owner include: looking for contact information, checking for a watermark, checking the image’s metadata, and doing a Google reverse image search. Resources like the the US Copyright office, which provides a database where you can search the copyright of a particular image, can help identity the rights owner. 

After the rights owner is identified, you must determine the rights you need. Be sure to consider medium, duration, language, and territory. Your publisher may have required rights for image use, so be sure to confirm with them before contacting the rights owner. Once you have identified the rights owner, you can contact the rights owner and formally request permission to use the image. While each situation will differ, Oxford Journals’ template permission request letter and Georgetown University’s sample permission request letter provide possible examples of how to structure a request letter. Be prepared for patience after contacting the rights owner; many publishers can take between 4-6 weeks to respond, if at all. Also be prepared for fees, as rights owners may ask you to pay to use the images; you can, however, try to negotiate fees with the rights owner. 

Be sure to have a back-up plan, as even if you have followed all of the steps, the rights owner may either not respond or deny your request. The following section provides resources for finding open images, as well as suggested best practices to follow during the permissions process. 

Conclusion and tips/resources

While securing image use permissions can be complicated, there are several ways to help the process go more smoothly. The first is to focus on finding open images, thus nullifying the need to obtain permission. Wikimedia Commons hosts a repository of free-use images and Georgetown University provides a helpful list of places to find open images. If you do have to ask permission, be sure to plan ahead and keep clear and thorough documentation of all correspondences. It is best to ask for non-exclusive, worldwide rights for the lifetime of the image in both print and electronic formats. This assures that you will not have to re-obtain permissions for any reprints, translations, etc. of your publication. Also be sure to keep all original citation information for each image, to expedite your captioning. While the permissions process will look different for each author, these guidelines facilitate the process. They can also serve as a useful resource for journal managers and editors to provide to authors. 

Additional information on using images is available in this guide to using images from the IU LIbraries Copyright Program. For further questions or concerns regarding using images in scholarly publication, please contact Copyright Program,  Naz Pantaloni, at nazapant@indiana.edu.

Managing Research Identity: ORCID

Indiana University Libraries are pleased to announce that we have joined ORCID – a nonprofit organization that provides an open, transparent solution for researcher identity management. IU faculty, staff, and students can use ORCID to create an ORCID iD – a 16-digit number that uniquely identifies a researcher. This iD is then linked to an individual’s research output. With the help of ORCID iDs, IU faculty and staff can more easily receive credit and recognition for their work, reduce time spent on reporting and administrative requirements, and continually and automatically update their dossiers by incorporating services such as CrossRef and DataCite. Image 1: ORCiD: Connecting Research and Researchers Logo

An ORCID iD helps you easily and reliably link your unique identity with your contributions. You can maintain all of your key information in one place, and you control your own privacy settings. ORCID allows you to link with other identifier systems, including those maintained by funders and publishers, and exchange data freely with those research information systems. For example, authors can often log in to journal submission systems using their ORCID iDs, sparing them from continually re-entering affiliation and contact information. Furthermore, when an article is subsequently published, a citation and link automatically appear in that author’s ORCID profile, enabling easy access to other publications for interested readers.

Image 2: ORCiD home page and registration

Registration is free and fast for IU researchers and scholars. ORCID is integrated with IU CAS Login, which enables users to utilize their IU login information to automatically create an account affiliated with Indiana University. When you Sign Up for your free ORCID iD, select “Institutional account” in order to login with your IU credentials.

If you have any questions about creating or using an ORCID iD, please contact us at iusw@indiana.edu.

The Great American Read

This post was authored by Scholarly Communication Department student assistant Jenny Hoops and Scholars Commons Librarian Alyssa Denneler.

Image 1: PBS Great American Read
Source: https://www.pbs.org/the-great-american-read/resources/downloads/

The Great American Read is an eight-part televised series on PBS that celebrates the American novel. The series is the centerpiece of a digital, educational and community outreach campaign, designed to get the country reading and passionately talking about books. With the help of a national survey, PBS has selected 100 of America’s “most-loved novels”. These novels range widely in terms of time period, setting, and tone, but all have captured the interest of the public and crafted American literary culture.

Libraries are a great a way to access these 100 books- and not just through the traditional check-out process. About one-fifth of these books are public domain, meaning that they are out of copyright, and thus can be accessed digitally completely free. Public domain also ensures users the right to reuse, adapt, or transform these works without restriction, encouraging meaningful engagement with the material for years to come.  IU’s HathiTrust is an excellent resource for these public domain books. Classics such as Frankenstein, Pride and Prejudice, and The Call of the Wild, to name only a few, are available in a high quality, accessible format. Countless books beyond those in the Great American Read’s Top 100 are in the public domain, and IU librarians are always ready to help you figure out which books are out of copyright and free for you to find and use.

Take some time this fall to re-read an old favorite, or pick up a new classic recommended by others! Before the voting ends in October, check out the Great American Read display in the Wells Library Scholars’ Commons, on the bookshelf in front of Hazelbaker hall. All of the available books for this initiative have been collected there so you can more easily find your next great read. They’re all available for check out as well, if you feel compelled to take one home with you. Finally, you can still vote online for your favorite.

Curious about Open Access and the public domain? Our Scholarly Communication department is leading a workshop this fall on Starting an Open Access Journal, where you can learn more about academic publishing in a new way.

Copyright and Data Curation

Digital technologies have engendered new research methodologies that can render mass collections or assemblages of things as data and analyze them as such. Things such as images, the millions of books on Google Books, or commercial databases of scholarly research articles that were originally created to be viewed or read can now be mined for data, coded, and analyzed statistically.

These new technologies and research methods, like many technologies before them, raise concomitant copyright issues and questions. In addition, the advent of open data policies from the U.S. government, foundations, and other grant funders have also raised questions from researchers about who owns data; what, if any legal protections exist for data; and how other researchers may use such data? These questions arise throughout the life cycle of data, from its creation, to archiving it, and its possible licensing for use by other researchers.

Data and its curation clearly raise other legal issues as well, including privacy, cybersecurity, trade secrets, and patent law. In the context of copyright law, data implicates issues about the subject matter and ownership of copyright, or what is copyrightable, and who owns the copyright in copyrightable intellectual property.

Data v. Databases

By data, I mean the raw content of assembled, collected, or generated stuff to be subjected to statistical analysis and interpretation. Illustrations or representations of the analyzed data in tables, charts or graphs, present related but separate copyright issues.

By databases, I am referring to the organization of the data, its relationship to different data elements, or how the data is organized in a structured set of data, typically stored in a computer, and made accessible and manipulable by means of software applications.

Copyrightability of Data and Databases

U.S. copyright has very little to say, at least not directly, about either data or databases. Instead, copyright law provides a framework for establishing the subject matter of copyright – or what is copyrightable – and who owns copyrightable intellectual property once it has been created. Copyright law then provides certain protections for that copyrightable intellectual property in the form of specifically enumerated exclusive rights granted to copyright owners.

Under the law, copyright protection is granted to “…original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression…” A lot of data will not be copyrightable because it does not meet the first requirement for copyright protection, namely, originality. While many sources of data, such as images or texts in a database, are of course copyrightable, the data generated from those sources, as well as other data sets generally, does not constitute an “original work of authorship,” as described by the Copyright Act and litigated in numerous cases. This might not make sense to a lot of researchers: if a researcher designs an experiment or study, runs experiments or conducts surveys, collects and compiles the data, isn’t that original, and aren’t they the author of it? Yes, in a certain sense, but not in the sense that is important for copyright. Copyright is intended to incentivize the publication and distribution of creative works. Facts and data aren’t considered original works of authorship because they are not “created” so much as they are “engendered” by or are a result of a researcher’s methods. They are discovered and compiled, and copyright does not reward that effort.

Moreover, data is typically factual or informational, and U.S. copyright does not protect facts or information. It is not possible to copyright facts, ideas, procedures, processes, methods, systems, concepts, formulas, algorithms, principles or discoveries, although such things might be protectable by patent law.

Similarly, while U.S. copyright law does protect compilations, Congress has not seen fit to extend copyright protection to databases themselves. There could nevertheless be a thin layer of copyright protection in a database, premised on choices regarding what data to include in the database, the organization of the data, or defining the relationships between different data elements. Such creative decisions potentially meet the requirements for copyrightability and copyright protection.

Ownership and Protection of Data and Databases

Because of the varying degrees of copyrightability of databases and data content, and because copyright only protects copyrightable works, different strategies are required to manage the ownership and protection of data and databases. Copyright can govern the use of databases and some data content (that is “an original work of authorship”), but other mechanisms must be relied on to regulate access to and the use of data and databases, typically on the basis of access controls by means of authentication, and contracts and licensing agreements to restrict the extraction and reuse of the data, or other contents of a database.

Data Curation and Licensing

Ideally, repository collections of data will provide information regarding the terms of use for the database and its data content. The Open Data Commons group (http://opendatacommons.org) has developed three standard licenses based on copyright and contract principles. They are:
1. Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL): This dedicates the database and its content to the public domain, free for everyone to use as they see fit.
2. Attribution License (ODC-By): Users are free to use the database and its content in new and different ways, provided they provide attribution to the source of the data and/or the database.
3. Open Database License (ODC-ODbL): ODbL stipulates that any subsequent use of the database must provide attribution, an unrestricted version of the new product must always be accessible, and any new products made using ODbL material must be distributed using the same terms. It is the most restrictive of all ODC licenses.

Exploring Open Journals: An Open Access Article Showcase on the Empathetic Classroom

This post was written by the Scholarly Communication Department’s graduate assistant, Jenny Hoops. 

This is our second post in a series that aims to highlight and showcase interesting, integral, and open scholarship at Indiana University. The Office of Scholarly Publishing (OSP), a partnership between the IU Libraries and Indiana University Press, continues to facilitate the creation and preservation of open and accessible scholarship through the Open Journal Systems (OJS) publishing platform. Through OJS, the OSP has helped numerous editorial teams publish over a dozen open access journal titles on a variety of subjects. One of the Office of Scholarly Publishing’s most widely-read titles, Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (JoSoTL), demonstrates the impact that open access research can have.

The Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (JoSoTL) has been dedicated to the publication of research examining contemporary problems, both practical and theoretical, in the teaching of higher education since its first publication in 2001. JoSoTL includes countless articles, essays, critiques, literature reviews, and case studies, authored by scholars around the globe. JoSoTL is indexed by several integral education databases including ERIC, Education Source, and Education Research Complete. All of JoSoTL’s journal content is immediately accessible, as open access is core to its mission. The journal’s editor-in-chief is Michael Morrone, lecturer in IU’s Kelley School of Business and director of the Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching (FACET).

One example of the quality of work that JoSoTL publishes is the article “Managing Student Self-Disclosure in Class Settings: Lessons from Feminist Pedagogy,” a piece from this year’s first issue of JoSoTL. The article is authored by IU South Bend’s Catherine Borshuk, a social psychologist and Director of the University’s Women’s and Gender Studies Program. Borshuk engages with a rising issue in higher education classrooms, particularly within the humanities and social sciences: the need to balance empathy with professionalism. The old feminist ideal “the personal is political” has entered the college classroom in unexpected ways, as students, encouraged by patterns developed from social media, feel more willing to share highly personal and occasionally upsetting anecdotes related (or sometimes not) to classroom lectures and topics. Borshuk argues that this impulse to share and create a more understanding classroom must be met with measured compassion, and attempts to foster empathy while still maintaining academic discipline and ethics are key.

After a review of the problem and its theoretical background, Borshuk offers potential solutions for this challenging task. She suggests several initial strategies for teachers engaging with her work: avoiding “othering” students by avoiding assumptions about student backgrounds and experiences and using the pronoun “we” rather than “they” or “them”; building diverse materials and subjects into class readings; and finally, focusing on societal and institutional narratives rather solely the personal (pgs. 80-82). Borshuk concludes with her own experiences of utilizing such techniques and encourages other educators to engage with feminist pedagogy to solve issues of student disclosure. Work such as this article provides philosophical explanations for educational issues while also beginning discussion on how to solve such problems to benefit both the teacher and the student.

The improvement of education relies on communication and collaboration between instructors. Further, in order to develop the best educational techniques, instructors must learn from mistakes and elaborate on successes. The Office of Scholarly Publishing is excited to assist JoSoTL in their work to improve both instruction and education.

Why DOI?

Image 1: Oprah with text “You get a DOI, everything gets a DOI”While many researchers have heard of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), some may not know why and when they should be used. The single most important characteristic of DOIs is that they can be attached to just about any digital, online research output. If something has a URL, or a specific location on the web, it can be assigned a DOI. The versatility of DOIs means they can be tied to journal articles, datasets, supplemental material and addendum; to video, audio, streaming media, and 3D objects; to theses, dissertations, technical reports, and visualizations. More recently, DOIs are being assigned to pre-prints of articles, acknowledging the pre-print’s role in some disciplines to be as valuable as the published version.

Why does this matter? As the APA Style Blog explains,

The DOI is like a digital fingerprint: Each article receives a unique one at birth, and it can be used to identify the article throughout its lifespan, no matter where it goes. (https://shar.es/1VECYv)

This digital fingerprint grows in importance as we move into an era that scholar Péter Jacsó has described as a “metadata mega mess.” Keyword searches by title or author in Google, for example, and even Google Scholar, which relies on mechanisms rather than unique IDs, often return inaccurate information: titles are attributed to the wrong authors, especially those with common names; citations of articles are mistaken for the original article; publication years become volume numbers; and a score of other inaccuracies. Researchers who rely on Google Scholar often quip that the service provides an easy way to begin a citation search, but that sources must be verified by DOI through Crossref and other registries. An article with a DOI reduces its risk of becoming lost in this “metadata mega mess” (Péter Jacsó, “Metadata mega mess in Google Scholar”, Online Information Review 2010: 34.1: 175-191, https://doi.org/10.1108/14684521011024191).

The second essential feature of the DOI is that it is persistent. As a unique identifier, it enables digital objects to be found anywhere, anytime with a one simple click on a link. This means that a paper or dataset is accessible and discoverable without requiring a separate search. Incorporated into a citation, the DOI becomes a guaranteed location for the item cited because it will always resolve to the right web address (URL). When attached to a resource, the DOI is also machine-readable, supporting online discovery as well as targeted aggregations and indexes.

The Anatomy of a DOI
Every DOI has three parts:

anatomy of a doi diagram
Source: http://www.ands.org.au/online-services/doi-service/doi-policy-statement. CC-BY

  • Resolving Web Address. Like web addresses (URLs), DOIs enable research output to be discoverable and accessible. Online publishing and digital archiving have made them almost a necessity for scholarship, and they have become the de facto standard for identifying research output.
  • Prefix. The prefix is the beginning of a unique, alphanumeric ID that irrefutably represents a digital object, and as such it creates an actionable, interoperable, persistent link to the work. The prefix is almost always associated with the entity or organization, and can allow users to trace the digital material back to its source.
  • Suffix. The final part of the alphanumeric ID is unique to its assigned object.  Integrity of DOIs are guaranteed because they do not rely alone on URLs and the web’s DNS (Domain Name System) servers for resolution. A DOI, then, is both an online location and a unique name and description of a specific digital object. Moreover, while the DOI base infrastructure is a species of the Handle System, DOIs run on a managed global network dedicated to their resolution.

A recent data DOI created for a data set in the IUScholarWorks repository (https://doi.org/10.5967/K8SF2T3M) illustrates one of our unique prefix “shoulders” (10.5967/K8) and a randomly generated alphanumeric string that is unique to this object (SF2T3M). Our open access journal system, on the other hand, is configured to create DOIs that are more semantic and tell us more about the object. This DOI (https://doi.org/10.14434/v17i3.21306) also has a unique prefix for Indiana University’s open journal system (10.14434). What’s more, the rest of the ID tells us that it is from Volume 17, Issue 3, article number 21306 of its originating journal.

So, Why DOI?
The short answer is that DOIs increase the reach and impact of your work. Publishers, repositories, aggregators, indexers, and providers of research and academic profiles are now relying on DOIs to identify specific works accurately, which in turn more reliably links that work to its authors and creators. Furthermore, metadata and information about individual works are increasingly tied to DOIs.

Crossref — one of the largest providers of DOIs for publications and the provider of DOIs for our open journal program — continues to expand the metadata that can be tied to DOIs, thereby increasing what your work can do in the world. The Scholarly Communication Department plans to deploy two specific Crossref programs that use DOIs to improve the accuracy and accessibility of usage data, bibliometrics, research profiles, and altmetric impact. Cited-by uses an object’s DOI to track where and how a digital publication or data has been cited, and can be displayed alongside an article with other metadata, such as authors’ bios (https://www.crossref.org/services/cited-by). Event Data, a program currently being rolled out by Crossref, goes even further. It will leverage the increasing ubiquity of DOIs to enhance the metrics available to scholars for their work. Known commonly as altmetrics, Event Data will collect a publication’s appearance on social media and online communities, such as Wikipedia, Reddit, Twitter, Stack Exchange, and blog posts (https://www.crossref.org/services/event-data).

Furthermore, for any research products — from software and datasets to technical reports and presentations –created and authored by IU faculty, staff, and students that do not have a previously assigned DOI, the IUScholarWorks Repository can mint them free-of-charge for any and all submissions.

Statistical Somethings from IUScholarWorks: A Performer’s Guide to the Saxophone Music of Bernhard Heiden by Thomas Walsh

This post was written by the Scholarly Communication Department summer graduate assistant, Ruthann E. Miller  

This post is the first in a series that aims to highlight and showcase interesting, integral, and open scholarship in the IUScholarWorks repository. IUScholarWorks currently contains more than 8,000 unique items submitted by scholars, students, and professionals from a variety of disciplines. With all of this content, what interests readers the most?

The repository offers a section on statistics that conveniently provide the top 10 most viewed items. These results have a surprising nugget nestled away in the number 5 spot. It is a dissertation entitled, A Performer’s Guide to the Saxophone Music of Bernhard Heiden. The dissertation was written in 1999 by Thomas Walsh and later deposited into the repository in 2006. The dissertation is shared under a Creative Commons license, which is not uncommon for items authored by scholars from the Jacobs School of Music. A Creative Commons license (CC) comes in different varieties, but they all allow the author of a work to decide to allow others to freely distribute, share, and build upon their material while still retaining ownership. This particular dissertation is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND 2.5, which means the author allows anyone to copy and redistribute the work in any medium or format. However, the author does not allow the dissertation to be used for commercial purposes and it is not permissible to alter the work. The dissertation earned the fifth position with 7,644 views. To put this into perspective, number four on the list has 8,372 and number six has 6,714.

This particular item is important for a number of reasons. First, it is a dissertation. Dissertations are arguably one of the most important steps in a scholar’s early career. They also tend to fill gaps in the literature and explore foundational disciplinary concepts or trends in greater detail. This particular dissertation is incredibly popular, as denoted by its place in the top five. Of the top five items, one is an article on why the drinking age should be lowered, two are technical reports from IU’s scientific community, and one is a journal article on education. There are no other dissertations in the top five items. Not only did a dissertation crack the top five, but it is also the only one in the top ten!

The focus Thomas Walsh applies to the work of Bernard Heiden is fascinating. Walsh spends time providing a biographical sketch of Heiden as well as historical background on Heiden’s pieces that include saxophone. Much of the personal information included in the dissertation was obtained from several interviews Walsh conducted with Heiden. His final interview was in May 1999 and, unfortunately, Heiden passed away in April 2000. Heiden had a close connection with the Jacobs School of Music and was the chair of the composition department until retiring in 1974.

A Performer’s Guide to the Saxophone Music of Bernhard Heiden by Thomas Walsh also showcases the importance of making research open access. As most graduate students in the humanities can confirm, it is notoriously difficult to access dissertations, especially older ones or works connected to universities that have not promoted open access to their graduate students and faculty. Due to this, there is often information that does not find its way into new research simply due to information barriers. IU’s repository, however, provides access to a broad range of items that were formerly out of reach, including dissertations. Now, the research and efforts of newly minted scholars can be attained and used to the fullest potential. By making materials openly available, IUScholarWorks facilitates the use of  the information contained within dissertations to reach new audiences and promote the spread of ideas. This dissertation is just one example of how much impact open access can have on the world of academia.

What item(s) in IUScholarWorks do you view most? How are they unique?

To view the complete list of the highest viewed items in IUScholarWorks, visit our statistics page.

 

Reflections on 2014 and What’s to Come in 2015

With 21 journals and over 11,000 digital items published in its own iterations of Open Journal Systems (OJS) and DSpace, respectively, IUScholarWorks (IUSW) has led a crusade to cultivate the progression of erudition through the preservation and diffusion of academic studies conducted by the scholars of Indiana University.

In 2014, IUSW built new services and partnerships, and continued to strengthen its existing programming. Early in the year, IUSW introduced the option for editors and authors to obtain Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for works in both OJS and DSpace. Collaborations with the Avalon Media System team enabled IUSW to streamline the process for integrating multimedia into journal publications through the use of the Avalon Media Player. During the internationally celebrated Open Access Week in October, representatives from across the Libraries, IU Press, and the School of Informatics and Computing led discussions on topics related to open access and the scholarly publishing enterprise, including author’s rights, data management, and electronic publishing platforms.

IUSW has high hopes for what it will be able to accomplish during 2015, especially in regard to expanding its services. In response to requests from journal editors, IUSW has been working with the IU Press to be able to provide supplemental print copies of online journal issues. IUSW also aims to extend the ability to add Altmetric badges to journal articles in OJS, which is currently implemented in DSpace. Finally, IUSW will continue testing software solutions for an open access approach to conference management. With a successful beta run by the Indiana University Undergraduate Research Conference (IUURC20), IUSW hopes to be formally offering this service in the near future. Check back on the blog for reports on our progress!

To learn more about all things open access, feel free to stop by the consultation rooms in the Scholars’ Commons on Wednesdays 3-5pm to ask Shayna Pekala any questions you may have. Check out another open access project IUSW is working on: OpenFolklore.

View from a GA, Part 2

I just wanted to provide everyone with several updates about my ongoing work at IU ScholarWorks. October has been an exciting month.  One of the interesting events that happened was Open Access Week, in which librarians reached out to the general academic community to preach the merits of open access. Jen and Naz gave a talk called “Making Your Research Open Access”, directed at researchers interested in learning more about Open Access and the Institutional Repository.  Judging by the turnout, it was a success by any measure.

I was also given an opportunity to give a workshop on the NIH Public Access Policy. The NIH’s policy ensures that the public has open access to the published results of research funded by NIH award grants. While there have been some open access victories in other areas, I considered the NIH’s Public Access Policy to be on the better conceived and executed large open access projects. Not only has it provided millions of scientific work to the public for free, but it has also achieved a sufficient compromise with authors and publishers. With authors, the mandate comes as part of the grant award funding- if the research is “directly” funded by the grant, the author must make the work available to the public within 12 months of publication. Failure to do so will lead to both the PI and Insitutions having problem gaining NIH funding in the future. Perhaps more importantly then just creating abstract mandates for public access (like the NSF currently does), the NIH created a system that is remarkably easy to navigate, find information and submit document in one centralized database.

While general IR submission rates are relatively low, NIH compliance is roughly around 75% according to some studies of the issue, both because of ease of use and incentives created by the need for future funding. Just as importantly, the policy does make compromises not to upset the apple-cart of the current scholarly publishing model. The author still submits to the traditional academic journals in the usual fashion and is given a 12 month buffer between the time of publication and the time in which the article must be posted in pub med central. As it turns out, publishers are still doing just fine under this arrangement, as Elsevier continues to post a decent profit margin. Many journals’ voluntary compliance and submission (via Method A) has made the process extremely easy on authors. Granted, even this generous compromise in the favor of publisher is still being disputed by some large publishers, as clearly displayed by bills like “The Research Works Act” (H.R. 3699) that have attempted (and failed so far) to revoke the public access requirement.

Anyway, librarians should think about NIH Public Access requirement both as a model (for other funding agencies) and in the context of their own attempts to promulgate open access. Thinking about what the NSF might do (as of 2010 they promulgated a data sharing policy, intended to require data management plans as part of all proposals responding to NSF grant funding solicitations) will also be important as researchers look to libraries for assistance in archive large datasets online. I tend to think that such mandate either at funding levels or institutional levels might be a large boon for institutional repositories.