If you produce large datasets, create video or images, develop software or custom virtual machines, or rely on large packages of files and data in your research, we are pleased to introduce you to a new wiki-based widget for transmitting your work to our repository team.
With true drag and drop functionality, the widget allows users to transmit files of almost any size, from a 500 MB .mp4 video to a 10+ GB bundled virtual machine. All material dropped on the window or uploaded by browsing to a file on your machine will be synced to a dedicated Box folder owned by the Scholarly Communications Department. From there, our staff can ensure your material is placed in the appropriate preservation environment and mapped correctly to one or more IUScholarWorks records.
The tool gives IU researchers an accessible and straightforward method for transmitting material for deposit. It will be useful for the deposit of big datasets as well as files that merely exceed the 25-50 MB limit imposed on email attachments. Even for those who prefer to self-submit their own datasets, the simplicity of the tool makes the process of pushing data files to the Scholarly Data Archiveless demanding. This is especially true if you are dealing with transmitting multiple small files. Compressing and/or packaging them as a zip or tar file will enable a smoother upload.
This post is the first in the “Open Access Policy Guide” series. This series will address components of the IU Bloomington Open Access Policy and its implementation. We have written other posts about passing the policy, leveraging the license (Part I & Part II), and resources to support it.
What is Opting Out?
The IU Bloomington Open Access Policy is an opt-out policy. This means that if faculty do not wish to make a version of their published article openly available, they must opt out of the policy. When a faculty member opts out of the policy, a waiver letter signed by the Vice Provost for Faculty and Academic Affairs is generated. This letter waives the university’s license for your article.
The Scholarly Communication Department is working to make it as easy as possible to opt out of the policy and generate a waiver letter. Are you a faculty member who needs to opt out of published articles? There are two methods you can use to opt out.
In IU’s annual reporting system – Digital Measures Activity Insight – faculty will see a new option in the Publications/Scholarship of Discovery category. This option is “Opt out of the open access policy for this article (IUPUI & IUB only).” To opt out of the policy for an article, simply click this box. A waiver letter will be generated and emailed to you.
This is the best opt-out method if you need a waiver letter instantly and prefer not to wait for us to email you one. In IUScholarWorks Open (our repository extension to support the policy which will be launched shortly), complete the ‘Opt-out’ submission form. Enter your name, article title, and journal name (ISSN and DOI are recommended but optional). Select submit, and a waiver letter will be automatically generated for download. You will also receive an email with the waiver letter as an attachment. If you opt out using this method, you are not required to check the box in method one – we will track your waivers and ensure that it applies when you complete your annual report.
Frequently Asked Opt Out Questions
Do I need to opt out for every article I have ever published?
No. The policy only applies to articles published after it was passed on February 21, 2017.
What if I forget to opt out for an article but realize later that I need a waiver?
The policy states that you are able to change the archival status of an article at your discretion. Please contact us to make this change and generate a waiver letter.
What if I co-author a paper with another IU Bloomington faculty member and one of us opts out in DMAI but the other does not?
In the event that there are multiple IUB faculty members who have co-authored an article and one opts out in DMAI, we will honor the request of the faculty member who opts out. Or, as the Head of our Copyright Program puts it, “While the creator of a joint work can license a work separately, their license cannot override another co-author’s denial of a license.”
I want to opt out for all of my articles, how do I do that?
According to the policy, “Upon express direction by the Faculty member, the Office of the Vice Provost for Faculty and Academic Affairs, or his or her designate will waive application of the policy for a particular article.” This means that faculty members must opt out for each article published after February 21, 2017. The fastest way to achieve this is by clicking the opt out button for each article when you are completing your annual report.
My publisher says that I need to apply an embargo (make an article unavailable for a predetermined amount of time) – does this mean I need to opt out? How do I make it available when the embargo has elapsed?
You do not need to opt out for an article that requires an embargo period before it can be made openly available. The IUScholarWorks Open repository will restrict the article and automatically release it after the designated amount of time has passed.
I have more questions – where can I find help?
We have an FAQ for the policy available on our website that provides helpful answers to a range of policy questions. We are also available by email at iusw @ indiana . edu and will soon be announcing drop-in sessions to answer questions about the policy.
While many researchers have heard of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), some may not know why and when they should be used. The single most important characteristic of DOIs is that they can be attached to just about any digital, online research output. If something has a URL, ora specific location on the web, it can be assigned a DOI. The versatility of DOIs means they can be tied to journal articles, datasets, supplemental material and addendum; to video, audio, streaming media, and 3D objects; to theses, dissertations, technical reports, and visualizations. More recently, DOIs are being assigned to pre-prints of articles, acknowledging the pre-print’s role in some disciplines to be as valuable asthe published version.
Why does this matter? As the APA Style Blog explains,
The DOI is like a digital fingerprint: Each article receives a unique one at birth, and it can be used to identify the article throughout its lifespan, no matter where it goes. (https://shar.es/1VECYv)
This digital fingerprint grows in importance as we move into an era that scholar Péter Jacsó has described as a “metadata mega mess.” Keyword searches by title or author in Google, for example, and even Google Scholar, which relies on mechanisms rather than unique IDs, often return inaccurate information: titles are attributed to the wrong authors, especially those with common names; citations of articles are mistaken for the original article; publication years become volume numbers; and a score of other inaccuracies. Researchers who rely on Google Scholar often quip that the service provides an easy way to begin a citation search, but that sources must be verified by DOI through Crossref and other registries. An article with a DOI reduces its risk of becoming lost in this “metadata mega mess” (Péter Jacsó, “Metadata mega mess in Google Scholar”, Online Information Review 2010: 34.1: 175-191, https://doi.org/10.1108/14684521011024191).
The second essential feature of the DOI is that it is persistent.As a unique identifier, it enables digital objects to be found anywhere, anytime with a one simple click on a link. This means that a paper or dataset is accessible and discoverable without requiring a separate search. Incorporated into a citation, the DOI becomes a guaranteed location for the item cited because it will always resolve to the right web address (URL). When attached to a resource, the DOI is also machine-readable, supporting online discovery as well as targeted aggregations and indexes.
The Anatomy of a DOI Every DOI has three parts:
Resolving Web Address. Like web addresses (URLs), DOIs enable research output to be discoverable and accessible. Online publishing and digital archiving have made them almost a necessity for scholarship, and they have become the de facto standard for identifying research output.
Prefix. The prefix is the beginning of a unique, alphanumeric ID that irrefutably represents a digital object, and as such it creates an actionable, interoperable, persistent link to the work. The prefix is almost always associated with the entity or organization, and can allow users to trace the digital material back to its source.
Suffix. The final part of the alphanumeric ID is unique to its assigned object. Integrity of DOIs are guaranteed because they do not rely alone on URLs and the web’s DNS (Domain Name System) servers for resolution. A DOI, then, is both an online location and a unique name and description of a specific digital object. Moreover, while the DOI base infrastructure is a species of the Handle System, DOIs run on a managed global network dedicated to their resolution.
A recent data DOI created for a data set in the IUScholarWorks repository (https://doi.org/10.5967/K8SF2T3M) illustrates one of our unique prefix “shoulders” (10.5967/K8) and a randomly generated alphanumeric string that is unique to this object (SF2T3M). Our open access journal system, on the other hand, is configured to create DOIs that are more semantic and tell us more about the object. This DOI (https://doi.org/10.14434/v17i3.21306) also has a unique prefix for Indiana University’s open journal system (10.14434). What’s more, the rest of the ID tells us that it is from Volume 17, Issue 3, article number 21306 of its originating journal.
So, Why DOI?
The short answer is that DOIs increase the reach and impact of your work. Publishers, repositories, aggregators, indexers, and providers of research and academic profiles are now relying on DOIs to identify specific works accurately, which in turn more reliably links that work to its authors and creators. Furthermore, metadata and information about individual works are increasingly tied to DOIs.
Crossref — one of the largest providers of DOIs for publications and the provider of DOIs for our open journal program — continues to expand the metadata that can be tied to DOIs, thereby increasing what your work can do in the world. The Scholarly Communication Department plans to deploy two specific Crossref programs that use DOIs to improve the accuracy and accessibility of usage data, bibliometrics, research profiles, and altmetric impact. Cited-by uses an object’s DOI to track where and how a digital publication or data has been cited, and can be displayed alongside an article with other metadata, such as authors’ bios (https://www.crossref.org/services/cited-by). Event Data, a program currently being rolled out by Crossref, goes even further. It will leverage the increasing ubiquity of DOIs to enhance the metrics available to scholars for their work. Known commonly as altmetrics, Event Data will collect a publication’s appearance on social media and online communities, such as Wikipedia, Reddit, Twitter, Stack Exchange, and blog posts (https://www.crossref.org/services/event-data).
Furthermore, for any research products — from software and datasets to technical reports and presentations –created and authored by IU faculty, staff, and students that do not have a previously assigned DOI, the IUScholarWorks Repository can mint them free-of-charge for any and all submissions.
Grant proposal season is upon us. Increasingly, writing a grant proposal also means writing a data management plan that details how data will be managed, preserved, and shared after a funded project ends. The Scholarly Communication Department offers a Data Management Planning service and works directly with PIs, grant writers, and administrators to create plans that align with funder requirements.
Why are data management plans required?
In February of 2013, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released a memo entitled “Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research.” This memo mandated that all federal agencies with over $100 million in annual conduct of research and development expenditures develop a plan for public access to research output. Data management plans, previously required only in some circumstances by some federal agencies, became widespread. By October 2016, all federal agencies meeting these criteria had implemented public access policies. These public access policies hinge on the precept that research funded by taxpayer dollars should be made available to the public, industry, and research community.
Why can’t I preserve data with my funding agency?
The 2013 OSTP memo was an unfunded mandate. This contributed to a landscape of distributed solutions provided by many stakeholders in academic research. Commercial publishers, universities, non profits, and government data centers all worked to support researchers working to comply with new data sharing guidelines. In some cases, individual directorates/divisions will provide or endorse a data repository, for example the Arctic Data Center for NSF-funded science on the Arctic, or GenBank, the NIH genetic sequence database. In other cases, researchers are expected to use their discretion in selecting an appropriate data sharing solution.
Where do I find data management plan requirements?
Indiana University is a member of the DMPTool, a tool that walks users through creating, reviewing, and sharing a data management plan.
The tool has pre-fabricated templates for each directorate/division across funding organizations. To browse requirements for a specific funder, navigate to the DMP Requirements section and search for or select a funder from the list provided. To create a data management plan using one of these templates, log in to the tool using IU credentials and select the relevant funder from the list provided.
How do I choose a repository for my data?
This question is best answered on a case-by-case basis, but there are general guidelines that researchers can use to make the best choice. If in doubt, get in touch.
If a repository is mandated by a funding organization, researchers must use this repository for sharing data
If there is a widely-used disciplinary repository in your domain, consider choosing that repository. If you aren’t sure, check author guidelines for the top three journals in your field. Do they all recommend the same repository for sharing data? Alternately, take a look at www.re3data.org/ to see a registry of disciplinary repositories.
If you have no appropriate disciplinary repository, would rather not pay fees to deposit data, or prefer to keep your data with your institution, consider Indiana University’s institutional repository IUScholarWorks. It is completely free, operated by the Libraries, and designed to support funder requirements.
If none of the above solutions are appropriate for your data and you need unique or specific features, look for an established, well-supported, open repository like Zenodo (Integrates with Github!) or Harvard’s Dataverse (APIs! Maps geospatial files!)
I want to use IUScholarWorks to preserve and share my data. What do I say in my plan?
Language for data management plans will differ depending on the project and the funder. However, many researchers have found the following statement to be a useful starting point in describing IUScholarWorks:
To increase access to the published research that has been funded, the researchers will deposit peer-reviewed or pre-print manuscripts (with linked supporting data where possible) in the IU ScholarWorks institutional repository. A DOI will be created for the data and used in all publications to facilitate discovery.
These data will be preserved according to the current digital preservation standards in place for content within the IU’s institutional repository infrastructure. This includes a duplicate copy within the IU Scholarly Data Archive (SDA) and eventual deposit into the Digital Preservation Network preservation platform.
The combination of these systems provides mirroring, redundancy, media migration, access control, file integrity validation, embargoes, and other security-based services that ensure the data are appropriately archived for the life of the project and beyond.
I have a lot of data – can I still put it in IUScholarWorks?
Yes. In almost all cases, we are able to to provide free data archiving to IU-affiliated researchers through our partnership with the UITS Scholarly Data Archive. Large datasets live in the Scholarly Data Archive and are made accessible through IUScholarWorks by way of a persistent URL. Here is an example of a weather dataset published in IUScholarWorks.
Pro tip: You can drop off your dataset in the departmental staging area and send us an email with contextual information – we’ll do the heavy lifting and make sure it gets into IUScholarWorks.
Who can help me with my data management plan?
We can. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for assistance creating or implementing a data management plan. The Scholarly Communication Department can help to connect PIs with free campus-supported services to preserve and share data.
Every time you submit an item to the IUScholarWorks repository, you must accept the IUScholarWorks License. By accepting our non-exclusive license, you acknowledge that you either own the copyright to the work you are depositing, or you have been granted permission by the copyright holder to deposit it. If you are depositing material that has already been published, you will first need to find out if you hold the copyright.
When you publish an article in a journal, copyright is typically transferred to the publisher (this will be indicated in your original publishing agreement). If the publisher owns the copyright to your work, you will need to check whether they allow you to deposit it in the institutional repository. Fortunately, most publishers have developed explicit policies that speak to this, so you often won’t need to contact them directly. You can search for a publisher’s copyright policy on their website, or use the Sherpa/Romeo database.
When publishers do allow you to deposit your work in an institutional repository, they frequently impose restrictions, such as an embargo period and/or the type of version permitted.
Publisher embargo periods can range anywhere from 6 to 24 months (and sometimes longer). If a publisher requires you to embargo your work, you can still deposit it in the institutional repository now and designate the amount of time after which it can be made openly available.
There are three types of versions that a publisher may or may not allow you to submit to the institutional repository:
Pre-print – a draft of an article before peer review
Post-print – the final, peer-reviewed article submitted for publication
Publisher PDF – the final, peer-reviewed article in the publisher’s typesetting and formatting
It’s important to note that content-wise, the post-print and the publisher PDF versions are identical. Many more publishers allow authors to deposit the post-print version in the repository than they do the publisher PDF version.
So you want to submit a published or unpublished article into IUScholarWorks (IUSW) repository? Here’s what you’ll need to know about copyright.
If you are submitting an unpublished article, no worries – you are the rightsholder, so go ahead and submit it to IUSW. If you are submitting an article that has been previously published, though, you (the author) are probably not the rightsholder. If this is the case, you will need to do a little extra research before depositing into IUSW.
Generally, copyright transfers over to a publisher upon publication of an article, so you will need to check with the publisher prior to depositing it. If you still have your signed publishing agreement this should indicate what your rights are. If you don’t have this document, here are some suggestions to move forward.
Your first step is to search SHERPA/RoMEO, a freely available online database of publisher copyright policies. Simply type in the name of your journal and you should receive information on what you can submit to an institutional repository such as IUSW. (For those new to S/R, this helpful video should clarify the search process and terminology.)
If you cannot find information through SHERPA/RoMEO, you will want to check to see if the journal has a website. If so, copyright information may be located there.
The final way to check copyright of an article is to contact the editor of the journal–not the publisher, which usually oversees many journals. It is helpful for the author of the work in question to write the message. We’ve found that this usually helps expedite the process. You can use a format like this sample letter to the editor.
One easy way to save yourself this trouble moving forward is to complete the SPARC Author Addendum prior to signing your copyright over to a publisher. This legal document ensures that you keep the rights that you want, including the ability to archive your work in an institutional repository like IUSW. Read about the addendum to determine if it’s right for you!
When most people hear the term, “open access,” they typically think of information that is freely accessible on the web; however, that only encompasses half of what open access stands for. Open access is not only about being able to obtain information for free, but it is also about being able to reuse that information freely, i.e. how that information is subsequently distributed, linked to, and built upon.
By default, you, the author, hold the copyright for every new work you create, meaning you alone have the right to distribute and create derivatives from it. The good news is you can waive this right by adding a Creative Commons License to your work, which explains to users what they may or may not do with it. For example, a CC-BY license tells users that they may distribute and create derivative works, as long as they attribute the original work to you.
Adding a Creative Commons license to your work in IUScholarWorks is a simple step. When you submit an item to the repository, you have the opportunity to specify the name of a license in the Rights field during the submission process. Remember, leaving this field blank means the that you reserve all rights to your work!
Data visualization has grown in popularity as datasets have become larger and tools have become more user-friendly. This area is eagerly being explored by researchers in a variety of disciplines. Although many people think of numbers when they consider types of data, data comes in many forms–including text! In fact, for many researchers, especially those in the humanities or social sciences, text is their primary data source.
Here is a brief list of freely available tools you can use to explore and visualize both numerical and textual data. This list is by no means comprehensive; to check out additional tools, try the visualization tool list at Bamboo DiRT.
ManyEyes – This tool allows users to easily upload datasets and create basic visualizations. To get a feel for the types of visualizations created, view the ManyEyes gallery.
Sci2 Tool – This tool, developed at the Indiana University Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, is billed as “a modular toolset specifically designed for the study of science [that] supports the temporal, geospatial, topical, and network analysis and visualization of scholarly datasets.” Its strength lies in its ability to handle network data, similar to Gephi.
Tableau Public– This free, limited-functionality version of the popular software Tableau simplifies the act of creating charts and graphs.
Voyant – This is a browser-based platform for analysis and visualization of texts. It is a beginner-friendly tool with modest functionality: visualizations created within Voyant are limited to charts and graphs, though it would be easy to plug the data generated by the program into another platform with greater capacity for visualization, such as Gephi.
WordSeer– WordSeer is a textual analysis and visualization tool comparable to Voyant. The latest version, 3.0, has not yet been released publicly.
Lastly, I would be remiss if I failed to mention the important role that data management plays in data visualization. Poorly managed data may hinder your ability to create effective visualizations, so learn a few simple steps to manage your data more effectively. For more information, contact Stacy Konkiel, Science Data Management Librarian, at email@example.com to schedule a consultation!
Stacy Konkiel, Science Data Management Librarian, @skonkiel, and myself, Jen Laherty, Digital Publishing Librarian, @jlaherty, were asked to provide the Bloomington Library Faculty Council with an overview of Open Access. Here is our quick presentation, given December 4, 2013.
On a related note, the Bloomington Faculty Council Library committee, co-chaired by faculty Jason Baird Jackson, Director of the Mathers Museum of World Cultures and Associate Professor of Folklore and Ethnomusicology and Ted Striphas, Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Communication and Culture, are leading a discussion to recommend, or not, that an open access deposit policy be adopted by Indiana University Bloomington Faculty. A similar conversation is happening at the IUPUI campus.
Librarians at IUB may wish to discuss an open access deposit policy for their scholarly outputs ahead of a campus policy – akin to those described in the seventh ‘think to know’ in the linked presentation.
As promised, I have compiled some “required reading” related specifically to altmetrics and their use in libraries. These articles and blog posts actually comprise a majority of the writing out there on altmetrics in libraries–there’s surprisingly little that librarians have written to date on how our profession might use altmetrics to enhance our work.
Ironically enough (given librarians’ own OA advocacy), some of the articles linked below have been published in toll access library science journals. Apologies in advance for any paywalls you may encounter. (Though if you do find barriers to access, you should tell OA Button about it!)
Corrall, S., Kennan, M. A., & Afzal, W. (2013). Bibliometrics and Research Data Management Services: Emerging Trends in Library Support for Research. Library Trends, 61(3), 636–674. doi:10.1353/lib.2013.0005
Lapinski, S., Piwowar, H., & Priem, J. (2013). Riding the crest of the altmetrics wave: How librarians can help prepare faculty for the next generation of research impact metrics, 4. Digital Libraries. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3328
Weber, N. M., Thomer, A. K., Mayernik, M. S., Dattore, B., Ji, Z., & Worley, S. (2013). The Product and System Specificities of Measuring Curation Impact. International Journal of Digital Curation, 8(2). doi:10.2218/ijdc.v8i2.286
Day, M., & Michael Day. (2004). Institutional repositories and research assessment. Project Report. UKOLN, University of Bath. (pp. 1–30). Bath: University of Bath. Retrieved from http://opus.bath.ac.uk/23308/
Konkiel, S., & Scherer, D. (2013). New opportunities for repositories in the age of altmetrics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 22–26. doi:10.1002/bult.2013.1720390408
Organ, M. K. (2006). Download Statistics – What Do They Tell Us? The Example of Research Online, the Open Access Institutional Repository at the University of Wollongong, Australia. D-Lib Magazine. Retrieved February 13, 2012, from http://ro.uow.edu.au/asdpapers/44/
Do you have “must read” articles relating to libraries and altmetrics that didn’t make it on this list? Leave ’em in the comments below!