When Can I Deposit What? Everything You Need to Know about Permissions and Versions When Submitting to the Repository

Every time you submit an item to the IUScholarWorks repository, you must accept the IUScholarWorks License. By accepting our non-exclusive license, you acknowledge that you either own the copyright to the work you are depositing, or you have been granted permission by the copyright holder to deposit it. If you are depositing material that has already been published, you will first need to find out if you hold the copyright.

When you publish an article in a journal, copyright is typically transferred to the publisher (this will be indicated in your original publishing agreement). If the publisher owns the copyright to your work, you will need to check whether they allow you to deposit it in the institutional repository. Fortunately, most publishers have developed explicit policies that speak to this, so you often won’t need to contact them directly. You can search for a publisher’s copyright policy on their website, or use the Sherpa/Romeo database.

When publishers do allow you to deposit your work in an institutional repository, they frequently impose restrictions, such as an embargo period and/or the type of version permitted.

Embargoes

Publisher embargo periods can range anywhere from 6 to 24 months (and sometimes longer). If a publisher requires you to embargo your work, you can still deposit it in the institutional repository now and designate the amount of time after which it can be made openly available.

Version types

There are three types of versions that a publisher may or may not allow you to submit to the institutional repository:

Pre-print – a draft of an article before peer review

Post-print – the final, peer-reviewed article submitted for publication

Publisher PDF – the final, peer-reviewed article in the publisher’s typesetting and formatting

It’s important to note that content-wise, the post-print and the publisher PDF versions are identical. Many more publishers allow authors to deposit the post-print version in the repository than they do the publisher PDF version.

If you are ever unsure about what work you can or can’t deposit, please contact the IUScholarWorks Team.

Copyright and IUScholarWorks

So you want to submit a published or unpublished article into IUScholarWorks (IUSW) repository? Here’s what you’ll need to know about copyright.

If you are submitting an unpublished article, no worries – you are the rightsholder, so go ahead and submit it to IUSW. If you are submitting an article that has been previously published, though, you (the author) are probably not the rightsholder. If this is the case, you will need to do a little extra research before depositing into IUSW.

Generally, copyright transfers over to a publisher upon publication of an article, so you will need to check with the publisher prior to depositing it. If you still have your signed publishing agreement this should indicate what your rights are. If you don’t have this document, here are some suggestions to move forward.

  1. Your first step is to search SHERPA/RoMEO, a freely available online database of publisher copyright policies. Simply type in the name of your journal and you should receive information on what you can submit to an institutional repository such as IUSW. (For those new to S/R, this helpful video should clarify the search process and terminology.)
  2. If you cannot find information through SHERPA/RoMEO, you will want to check to see if the journal has a website. If so, copyright information may be located there.
  3. The final way to check copyright of an article is to contact the editor of the journal–not the publisher, which usually oversees many journals. It is helpful for the author of the work in question to write the message. We’ve found that this usually helps expedite the process. You can use a format like this sample letter to the editor. 

After completing these steps, you should now know what exactly can be deposited into IUSW: pre-print, post-print, or the publisher’s version of your article.

One easy way to save yourself this trouble moving forward is to complete the SPARC Author Addendum prior to signing your copyright over to a publisher. This legal document ensures that you keep the rights that you want, including the ability to archive your work in an institutional repository like IUSW. Read about the addendum to determine if it’s right for you!

Open Access, Copyright, Licensing, and IUScholarWorks

When most people hear the term, “open access,” they typically think of information that is freely accessible on the web; however, that only encompasses half of what open access stands for. Open access is not only about being able to obtain information for free, but it is also about being able to reuse that information freely, i.e. how that information is subsequently distributed, linked to, and built upon.

Example of a derivative work.
Example of a derivative work. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADerivative-work-icon.svg

By default, you, the author, hold the copyright for every new work you create, meaning you alone have the right to distribute and create derivatives from it. The good news is you can waive this right by adding a Creative Commons License to your work, which explains to users what they may or may not do with it. For example, a CC-BY license tells users that they may distribute and create derivative works, as long as they attribute the original work to you.

Adding a Creative Commons license to your work in IUScholarWorks is a simple step. When you submit an item to the repository, you have the opportunity to specify the name of a license in the Rights field during the submission process. Remember, leaving this field blank means the that you reserve all rights to your work!

To learn more about licensing options, check out the Creative Commons website (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/) or contact the IUScholarWorks team.

Free Tools to Visualize Your Data

Data visualization has grown in popularity as datasets have become larger and tools have become more user-friendly. This area is eagerly being explored by researchers in a variety of disciplines. Although many people think of numbers when they consider types of data, data comes in many forms–including text! In fact, for many researchers, especially those in the humanities or social sciences, text is their primary data source.

journal.pone.0004803.g005
This example of a network visualization could be created using a tool like Gephi or Sci2. Image: Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science. Johan Bollen, Herbert Van de Sompel, Aric Hagberg, Luis Bettencourt, Ryan Chute, Marko A. Rodriguez, Lyudmila Balakireva. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004803

Here is a brief list of freely available tools you can use to explore and visualize both numerical and textual data. This list is by no means comprehensive; to check out additional tools, try the visualization tool list at Bamboo DiRT.

  • D3 – A JavaScript data visualization library. While you would need to invest the time to learn basic JavaScript, this introductory tutorial breaks down steps to learn D3. You can also check out the array of impressive visualizations resulting from its use.
  • Gephi – If you only wanted to invest the time to learn one visualization tool, this open source software for visualizing networks and complex systems is a great choice. Take a look at one of the many available tutorials to get started.
  • ManyEyes – This tool allows users to easily upload datasets and create basic visualizations. To get a feel for the types of visualizations created, view the ManyEyes gallery.
  • Sci2 Tool – This tool, developed at the Indiana University Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, is billed as “a modular toolset specifically designed for the study of science [that] supports the temporal, geospatial, topical, and network analysis and visualization of scholarly datasets.” Its strength lies in its ability to handle network data, similar to Gephi.
  • Tableau Public – This free, limited-functionality version of the popular software Tableau simplifies the act of creating charts and graphs.
  • Voyant – This is a browser-based platform for analysis and visualization of texts. It is a beginner-friendly tool with modest functionality: visualizations created within Voyant are limited to charts and graphs, though it would be easy to plug the data generated by the program into another platform with greater capacity for visualization, such as Gephi.
  • WordSeer – WordSeer is a textual analysis and visualization tool comparable to Voyant. The latest version, 3.0, has not yet been released publicly.

Lastly, I would be remiss if I failed to mention the important role that data management plays in data visualization. Poorly managed data may hinder your ability to create effective visualizations, so learn a few simple steps to manage your data more effectively. For more information, contact Stacy Konkiel, Science Data Management Librarian, at skonkiel@indiana.edu to schedule a consultation!

Open Access: 7 Things You Need to Know

Stacy Konkiel, Science Data Management Librarian, @skonkiel, and myself, Jen Laherty, Digital Publishing Librarian, @jlaherty, were asked to provide the Bloomington Library Faculty Council with an overview of Open Access.  Here is our quick presentation, given December 4, 2013.

On a related note, the Bloomington Faculty Council Library committee, co-chaired by faculty Jason Baird Jackson, Director of the Mathers Museum of World Cultures and Associate Professor of Folklore and Ethnomusicology and Ted Striphas, Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Communication and Culture, are leading a discussion to recommend, or not, that an open access deposit policy be adopted by Indiana University Bloomington Faculty.  A similar conversation is happening at the IUPUI campus.

Librarians at IUB may wish to discuss an open access deposit policy for their scholarly outputs ahead of a campus policy – akin to those described in the seventh ‘think to know’ in the linked presentation.

17 More Essential Altmetrics Resources (the Library Version)

As promised, I have compiled some “required reading” related specifically to altmetrics and their use in libraries. These articles and blog posts actually comprise a majority of the writing out there on altmetrics in libraries–there’s surprisingly little that librarians have written to date on how our profession might use altmetrics to enhance our work.

Ironically enough (given librarians’ own OA advocacy), some of the articles linked below have been published in toll access library science journals. Apologies in advance for any paywalls you may encounter. (Though if you do find barriers to access, you should tell OA Button about it!)

General

Collection Development

Research Data Curation

  • Weber, N. M., Thomer, A. K., Mayernik, M. S., Dattore, B., Ji, Z., & Worley, S. (2013). The Product and System Specificities of Measuring Curation Impact. International Journal of Digital Curation, 8(2).  doi:10.2218/ijdc.v8i2.286

Institutional Repositories

  • Day, M., & Michael Day. (2004). Institutional repositories and research assessment. Project Report. UKOLN, University of Bath. (pp. 1–30). Bath: University of Bath. Retrieved from http://opus.bath.ac.uk/23308/
  • Frank Scholz, S. D. (2006). International Workshop on Institutional Repositories and Enhanced and Alternative Metrics of Publication Impact. CERN. Retrieved from http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/series/dini-schriften/2006-8/PDF/8.pdf
  • Konkiel, S., & Scherer, D. (2013). New opportunities for repositories in the age of altmetrics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(4), 22–26. doi:10.1002/bult.2013.1720390408
  • Merceur, F., Gall, M. Le, Salaün, A., & Le Gall, M. (2011). Bibliometrics: a new feature for institutional repositories. In 14th Biennal EURASLIC Meeting (pp. 1–21). Lyon. Retrieved from http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00031/14253/11886.pdf
  • Organ, M. K. (2006). Download Statistics – What Do They Tell Us? The Example of Research Online, the Open Access Institutional Repository at the University of Wollongong, Australia. D-Lib Magazine. Retrieved February 13, 2012, from http://ro.uow.edu.au/asdpapers/44/

Do you have “must read” articles relating to libraries and altmetrics that didn’t make it on this list? Leave ’em in the comments below!

Want to read some general altmetrics-related research? Check out the original list of 17 Essential Altmetrics Resources.

Simple Steps to Manage Your Data More Effectively

Data management can be an intimidating topic. However, learning how to manage your data can improve your research processes and therefore your life! Not to mention the fact that many grant funding agencies now require data management plans to be submitted with proposals. Is your interest piqued yet? Read below for some easy first steps toward managing your data.

Consider your current data practices

Here are some preliminary questions to ask yourself.

  • What data do I collect?
  • Do I follow a process for collecting and documenting my data?
  • Who contributes data–just me or others, too?
  • What format is the data in?
  • Where is the data stored?
  • Is the data being backed up?

Determine areas to improve

Compare the following suggestions to your own data practices. If you can start taking steps to improve the weaker areas, you’ll be all set.

  • Documentation – Document the processes and workflows you follow when collecting and managing your data in a README file (click here for a good example). It is also important to follow standards within your field for documenting contextual information about your data. In library jargon, this is known as metadata. To search for a metadata standard in your discipline, try the Digital Curation Centre’s helpful search tool.
  • Formats – Ideally, data should be stored in open, non-proprietary formats. This will ensure that it can be accessed well into the future. The Open Data Handbook gives a good overview of open formats. This can be as simple as saving files as a CSV instead of Excel spreadsheet or a text file instead of Microsoft word document.
  • Storage – IU offers several options for data storage. You can store your data on the cloud through IU Box, which also provides excellent versioning and collaborative functionality. For sensitive or large data sets, you can use the Scholarly Data Archive. Whatever you do, just make sure that you are backing up your data and not just relying on your hard drive to keep your data safe. Also note that these options do not ensure long-term preservation. For this, you should consider adding completed data sets to the IU institutional repository, IUScholarWorks (IUSW).
  • Sharing and Access Opening up your data won’t be appropriate for all researchers, but those whose research is complete should consider storing their data in IUSW to promote discoverability and access to their data.

Get help

Data management advice is nearly impossible to generalize, especially in a short blog post! Contact Stacy Konkiel, Science Data Management Librarian, at skonkiel@indiana.edu with questions, comments, or to schedule a one-on-one consultation about how the IU Libraries Data Management Service can help you manage your data.

Predatory Publishers and IUScholarWorks

My name is Brianna Marshall and I am the Scientific Data Curation Assistant in the Scholarly Communication Department. While my responsibilities primarily pertain to helping researchers manage their data, I also work with IUScholarWorks (IUSW) quite frequently. Making your work available in IUSW ensures that it is preserved and made available to researchers around the world. Unfortunately, individuals submitting work to IUSW and other institutional repositories may find themselves targeted by predatory open access publishers.

What is a predatory publisher?

Often, predatory publishers do not offer traditional editorial services, such as peer review (although they may claim that they do). Many of these journals will accept an article then let the author know that they owe an exorbitant publication fee.

These predatory publishers can seem legitimate – they may have fully functional websites and authors rights statements that are similar to those of well-respected publishers, but this is no guarantee of their quality. The rise of online publishing has made it easier for these groups to masquerade as legitimate publishers.

How can I identify a predatory publisher?

Predatory publishers don’t serve any risk to researchers if you can identify and discount them as an option for disseminating your work.

Predatory publishers are seeking to make a large profit, so they are known to aggressively seek out new authors or editors. Receiving a form email that requests your submission to a particular publisher should be your first clue. Some publishers are bold enough to find authors who have submitted to institutional repositories: a librarian within our department experienced this firsthand after submitting her work into IUSW.

Don’t be fooled by these publishers. If you have any suspicions about the publisher, we recommend that you consult Beall’s List of Predatory Publishers. Jeffrey Beall, a librarian at the University of Colorado-Denver, publishes a list of “potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers” on his website. If after consulting his list you still have questions or concerns, consult your local librarian.

How can I avoid unwanted reuse of my work?

Clearly licensing your work with a non-commercial Creative Commons license is a possible way to thwart unwanted reuse of your work, but it’s not fool-proof. The rise of predatory publishers means that scholars need to be more vigilant than ever about researching where they choose to publish and what rights they have over that work.

17 Essential Altmetrics Resources

As the journal impact factor continues to be challenged by academics, many wonder what measures can take its place if it is indeed eradicated. Surely, we will have to continue to provide objective metrics that measure both the productivity and impact of scholars across the disciplines, won’t we? Some have posited that altmetrics (article-level metrics that measure impact across the social web) may be a good replacement for the impact factor; others contend that altmetrics can serve only as a supplement to existing, more traditional measures of research quality.

I have been asked several times by other librarians to compile a recommended reading list for those who wish to learn more about altmetrics. What I’ve created here is by no means comprehensive; instead, it is intended to be a starting point for further investigation into the field. By including several articles about the impact factor, as well as critiques of the use of research metrics and altmetrics to measure scholarship’s quality, I hope to provide a contextualized view into the field. I also include links to three web services (Altmetric.com, ImpactStory, and PLOS Article Level Metrics) that can be used to track altmetrics.

I’ll soon release a reading list scoped specifically for altmetrics used in the context of academic libraries. Stay tuned!

A Guide to Text and Data Mining at Indiana University Bloomington

Kim D, Yu H (2011) Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature. PLoS ONE 6(1): e15338. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015338
Kim D, Yu H (2011) Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature. PLoS ONE 6(1): e15338. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015338

Text and data mining of academic databases are becoming increasingly popular ways to conduct research. They can allow scholars to make connections not previously discovered, or find solutions more quickly and efficiently. Such research has also gotten some researchers into trouble for alleged copyright and contract violations, when practiced without due diligence into existing legal restrictions.

For IU researchers interested in accessing the Libraries’ digital journals, databases, special collections (specifically, HathiTrust), and other subscription content for the purposes of text or data mining, we’ve put together a quick-and-dirty guide to text and data mining at IUB. Check it out and let us know what you think in the comments.