Gerardo Gonzalez, the briefcase, and the University Archives

Earlier this summer whilst attending a “Lunch & Learn” hosted by the Office of the Bicentennial, I had the pleasure of meeting Gerardo Gonzalez, Dean Emeritus of the IU Bloomington School of Education (2000-2015). He mentioned that he had a memoir coming out later this year and he had some related family papers. They needed a permanent secure home – was the Archives interested?

Gerardo Gonzalez, 2014
Gerardo Gonzalez, 2014. IU Communications

If you are a regular reader of this blog, you already know that we collect quite broadly to document Indiana University and the people affiliated with the institution. But for those that may not or just for further information on our processes – indeed, the mission of the IU Libraries University Archives is to collect, preserve and make available university records of enduring value (as I tell classes, that is clearly something I have written down somewhere and have repeated several times, ha!). In pursuit of that mission, we focus on collecting records created and collected by IU Bloomington offices, departments, centers, institutes, as well as any campus offices with system-wide responsibilities. In addition, we seek out the records of student, faculty, and staff organizations. But we also extend our collecting priorities to the personal papers of IUB faculty, staff, and alumni. With these papers, we have areas of focus within each and they all tend to be on those materials that reflect their time at the university. But we also sometimes choose to go beyond that so that in the end, we have a collection that paints a fuller picture of the creator and his or her life.

So my answer to Dr. Gonzalez was an immediate affirmation. The papers he offered were very precious to him, as they were all related to his family’s emigration from Cuba to the United States shortly after Fidel Castro took power. Just a child at the time, Dr. Gonzalez only learned of the existence of the surviving telegrams, correspondence, plane tickets, etc. many years later when his father presented them in the briefcase in which they had been housed for safekeeping over the years.

This is the first telegram sent to Dr. Gonzalez’s parents. It threw them into a panic, as they had requested permission for their family of four to emigrate; this telegram instructed Gerardo’s younger sister – only 5 years old – to report to Havana for departure to the United States. Only Martiza. Nonetheless, his father began to explore possibilities so that at least Martiza could leave. Much to the family’s relief, later that same day they received a telegram that granted permission for their whole family to leave. In two days. IU Archives Collection C694

And now, we are responsible for their safekeeping, and they will allow us to tell a fuller, richer story of one of Indiana University’s most respected administrators and educators who began his life in the United States a shy, frightened refugee.

Gerardo Gonzalez, 1956. IU Archives P0082433

A finding aid for Dr. Gonzalez’s papers can be found on ArchivesOnlineIf you would like to view the collection, contact an archivist but note that we have fully digitized the small collection – click on the small cameras next to each item – as well as a few of the photographs! In addition to that, Dr. Gonzalez’s memoir, A Cuban Refugee’s Journey to the American Dream: The Power of Education, is now available through the IU Press! I just received my own copy, a gift from the author (thank you, Dr. Gonzalez!) yesterday, and I look forward to learning more about his journey.

Sincerely Yours: Ernie Pyle Day

Individual photo portrait of Ernie Pyle
Ernie Pyle’s 1923 yearbook photo

This Friday, August 3rd, Indiana University celebrates an adopted hometown hero on National Ernie Pyle Day! Did you know, however, that Pyle did not receive an IU degree until twelve years after he left Bloomington? The Vermillion County native began his studies here in 1919, but left a year before completing his degree in order to take a position with the La Porte Herald. Bittersweet personal circumstances also surrounded his IU departure: he had recently experienced a bad run-in with some Department of Journalism faculty, and a love interest gave him back his going-steady pin. Despite this, Pyle remained close with companions from IU his entire life. In 1941, at the height of his fame, he waxed longingly to his friend “Hermie” (yes, that one: Herman B Wells) about planning a chance to “escape” to Monroe and Brown Counties. So it was with anticipation, nostalgia, and some nerves that Ernie Pyle returned to IU in November 1944 to receive an honorary degree.

Two letters at the IU Archives show Pyle’s trademark wit and authenticity regarding his prodigal return. In a letter to his friend and IU Alumni Association secretary George “Dixie” Heighway the day after the honorary degree luncheon, Pyle wrote:

It was a wonderful day, Dixie. Instead of hating it, as I had anticipated, I’d almost like to do it again. You couldn’t have arranged it any better for my pleasure. I am deeply appreciative.

Dad and Aunt Mary will be talking about it for years. And so will I (I hope!).

In addition to his thanks, Pyle asks Heighway to send along some information, including the full name and address for University Comptroller Ward Biddle, the man who initially proposed Pyle’s honorary degree to President Wells. Most interesting though, is this request: “The name + street address of Harriett Davidson, Tri-Delt of ’24, now married to a Dr. Martin + living in Bedford, Ind.” This is the same Harriett Davidson who returned Pyle’s pin all those years ago! Perhaps Pyle was moved by the nostalgia of being in Bloomington, and wrote to Davidson to catch up with her after all those years.

Black and white photograph of Ernie Pyle and Patricia Krieghbaum in the IDS office, November 1944
Ernie Pyle visits the Indiana Daily Student office during his return to campus in November 1944.

As we read this letter today, it’s impossible not to feel a little sentimental. We know that Pyle was struck by sniper fire and died during the Battle of Okinawa in April 1945—just months after he wrote this letter. His humorous jab of hoping to talk about the honorary degree for years becomes a sad foreshadowing when we know this context. A follow-up letter Pyle wrote Heighway on November 28, 1944 includes another such line in the postscript: “I’ll be leaving here for good in about two weeks.” Pyle meant only that he would be off to cover World War II’s Pacific theater, but the permanence of the statement is eerie in hindsight.

These two letters, however, should be read for their joyful moments too.  In his November 28 letter, Pyle is especially touching:

After the luncheon that day, a red-headed gal from the Bloomington High School paper tagged me and wanted an interview. Our schedule was so tight and everybody was pulling at me so that I had to leave her standing there, and later had Jack Hastings go back and apologize and say it was impossible, since she seemed to want a lot of time.

I’ve felt badly about it, for I know how kids can be hurt by failing in an assignment like that. I’d like to send her an autographed book in recognition of a good try. Could you find out who she was?

The no-nonsense writing style and humanizing approach is all Pyle. The generosity to this student evinces his deep roots to Bloomington. Heighway or another colleague jotted down the student’s name and address: Gladys Lillian Morrison. Some genealogical research shows that as of 2016, Morrison was still living in Bloomington. She and her late husband both worked at IU. It seems that, like Pyle himself, many people keep these close ties Bloomington and the university.

To see these letters and other University Archives material related to Ernie Pyle, contact an archivist. The IU Libraries Lilly Library also holds a number of Pyle-related collections–contact our friends there for further information!

Scan of original letter from Ernie Pyle to George "Dixie" Heighway, November 28, 1944

Transcription of November 28, 1944 letter from Ernie Pyle to George “Dixie” Heighway:

                Nov. 28

Dear George—

Something else I wish you’d do for me.

After the luncheon that day, a red-headed gal from the Bloomington High School paper tagged me and wanted an interview. Our schedule was so tight and everybody was pulling at me so that I had to leave her standing there, and later had Jack Hastings go back and apologize and say it was impossible, since she seemed to want a lot of time.

I’ve felt badly about it, for I know how kids can be hurt by failing in an assignment like that. I’d  like to send her an autographed book in recognition of a good try. Could you find out who she was?

I’m still glowing over the grand day we had, and so are my folks.

As ever,

Ernie

P.S.—I’ll be leaving here for good in about two weeks

Behind the Curtain: Duncan King – Student Assistant, Digitization Projects

Duncan King, Undergraduate in the College of Arts and Sciences

What is your role in the IU Archives?
Duncan assists in the extensive task of digitizing items that are part of the University Archives collection.  These items vary from entire subject folders of important faculty and alumni papers to collections of documents on specific topics.  Duncan also helps with patron and researcher needs by scanning requested items, such as articles from old student publications, or the CV from a lecturer who visited IU nearly a century ago.  That’s pretty amazing when you think about it!

What is your educational background?
While many of the student workers at the Archives are MLS graduate students, it’s not unusual to have students from other backgrounds as employees. Duncan is currently an undergraduate just finishing his freshman year.  He is a student in the College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Central Eurasian Studies (CEUS) and is working on his degree in Tibetan History and Culture. Next year he plans to continue his education closer to family in California.

What previous experience do you have in archives?
During high school, Duncan spent much of his time in the school’s darkroom and photo lab.  While poking around the library storage closet, he found a bag containing photo slides from the mid-seventies.  During his senior year, he undertook the task of scanning and uploading the slides so that they were accessible to alumni.  Many of the photos showed the racial conflict and unity that existed in Seattle’s inner-city high schools during that time period.  Duncan found joy in knowing that his work was helping to preserve the scenes captured in these long-forgotten images.

What attracted you to work in the IU Archives?
Duncan’s attraction to the Archives was inspired by the previously mentioned digitization project. “I’ve always had a love for history,” says Duncan, “so working in the archives was a perfect way to combine that interest with a newfound passion for preservation. Documents come with their own challenges and victories, and I’ve really enjoyed learning how to tackle a new medium.”

Favorite item or collection in the IU Archives?
With the extensive number of items in possession of the IU Archives, it’s never easy to pick just one as a favorite, and Duncan agrees that this was a rather tough question to answer.  Nevertheless, he managed to decide on an item.  There exists in the collection a letter from the then Interim President Herman B Wells to Governor Paul V. McNutt (also the namesake of McNutt Residence Hall).  In this letter, Wells essentially states that he is uncertain of his ability to handle the presidency, and asks McNutt to relieve him of it. Duncan explains why he chose this item in the following statement: “I love this letter because it adds a very human dimension to the legend of Herman B Wells; knowing he had to overcome some adversity, that he had to work to win the love of the university he would spend the rest of his life at, makes me respect him even more.”

What project are you currently working on?
Duncan’s current project focuses on digitizing some of the papers of Kate H. Mueller, who served as the Dean of Women from 1937-1969.  These papers were created during her first few years of service, and show the history of a very different time at IU, and the restrictions regarding female students. “Many of the documents relate to privileges such as staying out past curfew (lights out at 11:00 for freshmen!), or the problem of fraternity men keeping everyone awake.”  Apparently, fraternity members would spend their nights serenading female students into the hours of the early morning.  “What’s most clear in the documents is how much Dean Mueller cared about the students she was responsible for, as she and President Wells worked together to help struggling students stay in school and make the grades they needed to remain enrolled.”  These documents certainly sound like they would be worth a read! To learn more about this collection, see the Dean of Women’s Office records!

Favorite experience in the IU Archives?
Every day opens Duncan to new experiences; each one his favorite.  “I know I’m going to learn something new about my university, and I have absolutely zero idea what that something might be!”

What is something you have learned about IU by working in the Archives?
The University Archives plays a crucial role in preserving the history of Indiana University.  There is something for everyone to learn at the Archives, whether the individual is staff, student, or a member of the community.  Student workers, in particular, learn many things about university history or practical knowledge of their studies.  What Duncan has learned has a very practical element.
“Honestly, I’ve been astounded at the amount of paper the University used to go through. Imagine every email, every short text or memo, or update on the progress of a project; not only did it need to be sent by paper, but a copy needed to be delivered to each recipient. The university still uses paper, don’t get me wrong, but we no longer need a sheet of paper just to acknowledge you received someone else’s sheet of paper that they sent you.”

This Summer, Live Your Language and Experience the World!

Sampling the local cuisine. A dish of paella. C689 IUHPFL records.

Have you ever dreamed about spending the summer in Mexico? Or of eating paella in Spain, visiting historic sites in France, cultivating a community garden in Chile, or immersing yourself in Japanese culture? For Indiana high school students, that dream can become a reality through the Indiana University Honors Program in Foreign Languages for High School Students, also known as IUHPFL.

The IUHPFL is a summer study abroad program specifically for high school students from Indiana. It was started in 1962 as a way to encourage the study of foreign languages and knowledge of other cultures among pre-college age students. When the program began, it operated three sites, one each in France, Germany, and Mexico. This summer, the program offers instruction in five languages – Chinese, French, German, Japanese, and Spanish – and students can travel to one of twelve different cities in eight countries.

For five to six weeks in June and July, students study a foreign language and live with a host family. They are encouraged to engage with the local culture as much as possible: besides their host family, there are excursions, lectures, activities such as sporting events and choir, and community engagement activities, such as working with local senior citizens.

C689 IUHPFL records.

The Program’s records spanning 1963-2017 are now at the Archives and a collection description can be found on ArchivesOnline! Teaching materials within the collection show that students work hard and learn a lot, but the photographs, articles, and clippings also show how much fun they have and how much they interact with the local culture. One very charming aspect of the collection is the group of student projects. As a reflection on their experiences, students in the different cities put together booklets with comments about what they learned about their host city and what they did during the program. In these booklets, you can find essays, poems, drawings, recipes, and heartfelt thank you letters to their host families. The 2011 booklet for the program in Brest, France, contains essays by the students about subjects such as the outings they went on with their host families, what they learned about Brest and World War II, and their experiences with French food, including one student’s love for Nutella milkshakes!

Student project booklet from the program in Brest, France, for 2011. C689 IUHPFL records.

A video made by the IUHPFL office shows several students talking about how the study abroad experience was one of the best of their lives, and other materials show that the sentiment was mutual. Newspaper clippings from foreign newspapers, as well as a CD with an interview from a radio station in Spain show that the host cities were equally excited about their foreign guests from Indiana.

Even if you’re well past high school age, the records and activities of the IUHPFL are a reminder to, in the words of one of their promotional posters, live your language! In other words, live your best life and experience the world around you. Seize the day! Carpe diem! Interested in seeing the records? Contact University Archives staff!

Capturing Memories, Sharing Experiences: A Story of Two IU Generations by Hunter Staskevich

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Photograph of Herman B Wells with Peruvian students taken by William Oglesby. March 3, 1959. Indiana University Archives, P0063511.

“President Wells would often have groups to his house for a meeting, open house, etc., and wanted a photo of the group to document the event, for PR, or to send a copy of the group to each of the participants. We would regale the group on the steps of the staircase in the foyer of his home, making sure to capture every face, and have auxiliary flash to supplement an otherwise somewhat dark scene. Wells was always on the front row, usually in the center of the group. The trick was to get everyone smiling and looking at the camera, so Herman would say something like, ‘I think my profile would look much better, if these two ladies would stand a little closer.’ Everyone of course would laugh, and that was my cue to trip the shutter. We always managed to get an excellent group picture!” – William B. Oglesby

We all are told many stories throughout our lives by family. Memories of the past told with the hope that a lesson will be taught or that the shared experience will bring about a closer bond. This is a story of how two journeys crossed paths. In 1935, Indiana University decided to establish the Audio-Visual Center (it would be later called Photographic Services) in an attempt to document the University’s history through visual media. The institution did this mainly through photography, and graduate students often assisted in fulfilling photo orders for various groups in and around campus. In 2000, the photographic negatives that were created as a result of this work were transferred to the Indiana University Archives and added to the photograph collections. The thousands of images are presently being digitized and uploaded online in the Archives Photograph Collection.

The story begins with William B. Oglesby, a graduate student at Indiana University from 1958-1961, who worked for Photographic Services as a photographer. He took hundreds of photographs covering a wide variety of topics during his time there. He told me stories about his experiences, such as the quote with which this post opens. I suppose this is the part where I should mention he also happens to be my grandfather.

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William Oglesby at the Photolab Christmas Party. December 19, 1958. Indiana University Archives, P0063320.

My part in the story actually starts with these talks I had with my grandfather. It was early 2016, and I had just informed him that I would be heading to Indiana University to pursue my MLS. I knew vaguely that he had gone to IU for his Masters in Audio-Visual Studies, but I never inquired deeply about it and it had never come up in conversation. Later that fall when I told him I was working in the Indiana University Archives with the photograph collection, he casually mentioned he had shot some photographs for Indiana University (not mentioning in what capacity) and that if I had time I might see if the Archives had any. His expectations were low, but I looked into it.

Bill Oglesby employee card. Indiana University Archives.

As you can probably guess, I found them…a lot of them, over 1400 images in fact. It started with my supervisor showing me the employee cards of people who worked in Photographic Services and from there it was a matter of just going through the correct dates in the collection and finding all the image envelopes that had “Oglesby” written on it. I scanned all those images and by Fall 2017, all of the images were available for viewing online in the Archives Photograph Collection.

It was about this time it was suggested to me that I conduct an oral history with my grandfather as part of Indiana University Bicentennial Oral History Project. I accepted and interviewed him in January 2018, where I learned all about his time at IU and the stories behind the photographs I had just digitized. It was this interview that inspired me to tell his story, and I happened to be planning an exhibition at the time. I took the opportunity to curate an exhibition using my grandfather’s photographs and implementing quotes from his oral history for context.

I find that photographs have the unique ability to document moments in time and capture emotion, since they are both a historical object and a form of art. When paired with oral history, the tale behind each image provides new perspective and greater appreciation for that captured moment. “Through the Lens: Documenting Indiana University Bloomington Photographically,” is an exhibition that takes these concepts and puts them into practice.

The images cover a wide range of topics including:

-Construction of iconic buildings on campus such as Memorial Stadium and the Lilly Library

-Campus groups such as the Marching Hundred and Jacobs School of Music events

-Various group and individual portraits

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Photograph of the Marching Hundred by William Oglesby. October 15, 1960. Indiana University Archives, P0071516.

To discover what it was like to work for Photographic Services from a student perspective and what was going on at IU during this time, please visit  “Through the Lens: Documenting Indiana University Bloomington photographically,” in person before Monday, July 9th, 2018!

The exhibition is located at:

The Office of the Bicentennial

Franklin Hall 200

Hours: 8:00 am – 5:00 pm; weekdays

601 E. Kirkwood Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405