cOAlition S: The Future of Research

On September 4th of this year, Open Access advocates and scientists around the world woke up to some big news: eleven European national research agencies, the European Commission, and the European Research Council (which represents all the national scientific organizations of European Union member states) announced that they were launching cOAlition S which will require all research funded by these organizations to be fully Open Access by January 1st 2020.

This is a major coup for Open Access activists and a step in the right direction for worldwide scientific research. Not only will cutting-edge and high quality research papers be easy and free for anyone to access, but this will also help to kick-start innovation among open access publications  and encourage more institutions, funders and scientists to be deliberate in choosing an Open Access journals and platforms for their research.

Along with this requirement, the cOAlition S announced ten guiding principles in their Plan S, which I will break down below:

Copyright:

•  Authors retain copyright of their publications without restrictions. All publications must be published under an open license, preferably the Creative Commons Attribution Licence CC BY. In all cases, the license applied should fulfill the requirements defined by the Berlin Declaration;

Perhaps  one of the most important guiding principles of Open Access, Plan S recognizes that authors should a) retain copyright to their work, b) get credit for the work they do, and c) enable anyone to share, adapt, remix, and build upon their work. You can also read more about CC-BY in this fantastic post by the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.

Funding and Organization

•  The Funders will ensure jointly the establishment of robust criteria and requirements for the services that compliant high quality Open Access journals and Open Access platforms must provide
•  In case such high quality Open Access journals or platforms do not yet exist, the Funders will, in a coordinated way, provide incentives to establish and support them when appropriate; support will also be provided for Open Access infrastructures where necessary;
•  The ‘hybrid’ model of publishing is not compliant with the above principles;

These three points are absolutely crucial to understanding–the Funders are clearly spelling out their support for establishing platforms, services, journals, and incentives for the publication of scientific research. They are also saying that even if these routes of publication do not yet exist that they will support them. What this means is that we may begin to see increasing academic, financial and intellectual support behind OA platforms, journals and monographs. Finally, they are taking the stance that hybrid models are not compliant with their principals, and that they will support increasing openness. A hybrid model is, for example, when a journal will allow authors to make their article open access–but only for a fee. cOAlition S is taking steps to do away with this hybrid model.

Institutional Support

•  Where applicable, Open Access publication fees are covered by the Funders or universities, not by individual researchers; it is acknowledged that all scientists should be able to publish their work •  Open Access even if their institutions have limited means;
When Open Access publication fees are applied, their funding is standardised and capped (across Europe);
•  The Funders will ask universities, research organisations, and libraries to align their policies and strategies, notably to ensure transparency;
•  The importance of open archives and repositories for hosting research outputs is acknowledged because of their long-term archiving function and their potential for editorial innovation;

These four bullet points show that the Funders are bringing real heavyweight institutional support to the forefront of the agenda. The first point especially, that the Funders or author universities will cover the cost of publication fees is momentous for researchers. As covered in great detail by Nature and Paywall: The Movie, the fees charged to authors who want to make their articles Open Access can be burdensome. Additionally, the policy of standardizing Open Access fees will help to bring down costs across disciplines in Europe.

It is notable that cOAlition S gives high praise to archives, libraries and repositories. As demonstrated by our own experience at IU, institutional repositories like IU ScholarWorks and IU Scholarworks Open are great ways to distribute Open Access research as they allow access by an international community of learners to research and information.

The Plan S goal is that all journal and other non-book scholarly work should be Open Access by 1 January 2020–and they that they will monitor compliance and sanction non-compliance. You can read more about cOAlition S, the member organizations, and their plans here.

Plan S is an exciting Open Access breakthrough that promises a more accessible and transparent future for research.

Scholarly Communications, Equity and Inclusion: Part 2

This blog post is part of a two-part series addressing the 2018 theme of Open Access Week: “Designing equitable foundations for open knowledge.”

In my last post I framed the issue of diversity in scholarly communications within the context of the profession of librarianship.  I asked

If, as I argue, diversity has intrinsic value, why then should the qualification for professional librarianship not reflect diverse approaches?

Restructuring entry to the profession with diversity in mind can take many different pathways.  A diverse approach could consider whether an undergraduate degree in librarianship can be a path to professional librarianship.   It could consider means of evaluating on-the-job training, as well as other means of providing certifications, perhaps by structured professional development courses, immersive summer schools, or other avenues for cumulative certifications that can eventually provide a professional qualification. It could consider whether access to those certifications can be provided to wide constituencies such as persons holding undergraduate degrees, persons with professional experience, persons with associate degrees, and persons who can competently pass an entrance examination. It could also consider developing and promulgating standards for library technicians and other classes of library professionals.

In terms of access to opportunities within academic programs, individuals with power within academic institutions must make conscious decisions to critically analyze conceptions of ‘best fit’ candidates and ask themselves whether this is simply privileging a particular cultural experience.  Such individuals must recognize the value that persons from different backgrounds can contribute to their institutions and make decisions to create space for such persons.  At the institutional level academic programs must be reformed to ensure that work experience is built into the programs for every entrant and that there is flexibility for entrants to change positions as their interests develop.

Most, if not all of these steps carry risks.  There is the risk in creating ‘diversity hire’ positions, that the scholarly community will suspect that the selected candidate was not necessarily the most qualified person for the job.  My own position, the Open Scholarship Resident Librarian, is a diversity residency created by the IU Libraries, and I have wondered whether others may think I was offered this position based on my race rather than my qualifications.

There is the risk in moving the discourse beyond representation and inclusion to think about the intrinsic value of diversity. The risk is that shifting the focus from representation can be used to perpetuate exclusion of underrepresented populations, on the basis that any individual necessarily brings a diversity of experience to the community.  There is also a risk that diversifying paths of entry to the LIS field would lead to devaluation of the worth and work of professional librarians as well as salary degradation.

We have to investigate these risks. These risks can be departure points for further scholarly inquiry.  We must ask what kinds of data must be collected, what practices must be put in place, and what decision making behaviors must be interrogated to address these concerns.  However, this should not inhibit work toward the deconstruction of established exclusionary systems.

These proposals can be applied in other areas of academia beyond librarianship.  The broad need for restructuring of credentialing is pointed to by Jonathan Finklestein of digital credentialing service Credly, in this article on alternative credentials.  Using alternative paths to credentialing is one step, the next step is to figure out how to get a wider array of voices into the scholarly and cultural record.

The institutional repository of Indiana University – IU Scholarworks – is a good example of a how to provide an access point for diverse voices.   Access to the repository is not limited to faculty and scholars. Anyone with a connection to IU can deposit work into the repositories, and once deposited the works are freely available for anyone to access.  The same applies to our Open Journals platform, which provides a low or no-cost digital journal publishing service.

The Indiana University Libraries Diversity Strategic Plan and the work of the Diversity Committee reflects an appreciation of the risks and nuances, while doing actual work to transform the library into a space that people from traditionally excluded groups can access and thrive.  The collections are being revamped, alternative qualifications are specifically referred to in job postings whenever possible, a member of the Diversity Committee takes part in the search and screen committees, and job applicants are specifically questioned on their commitment to diversity. The Diversity Committee plans outreach to cultural centers, the office of disability services, veteran support services and many other campus bodies that serve staff as well as faculty, in its work. IU Libraries joined the ACRL Diversity Alliance and created its first Diversity Residency – my position, the Open Scholarship Resident Visiting Assistant Librarian.

In my work I investigate the publishing output of the Indiana University Bloomington Libraries through Open Journals and the university repositories.  The goal is to identify gaps, and reach out to underrepresented communities and provide them with access to publishing.  Indiana University maintains several repositories for articles, thematic series, theses and dissertations, and images and video.  Our librarians can help you assess your rights to place your work into the repositories.  The goal is to create a scholarly environment without cost, geographical, or systemic barriers.  You can reach out to me at wtavern@iu.edu.

Scholarly Communications, Equity and Inclusion: Part 1

This blog post is part of a two-part series addressing the 2018 theme of Open Access Week: “Designing equitable foundations for open knowledge.”

The landscape of scholarly communication has become more diverse, moving beyond traditional book and journal publishing.  We now have an entire spectrum of methods of open scholarship available, with varying levels of formality, recognition and acceptance, such as –

  • open access publishing;
  • self-archiving by depositing scholarly data, pre-prints and post-prints in open repositories;
  • digital platforms for sharing data, articles and source code;
  • social networks;
  • blogs; and
  • podcasts. 

This diverse spectrum of scholarly communications challenges us to think about diversity within our profession, as well as equity and inclusion in terms of who and what is reflected in the scholarly record.

I believe diversity is an imperative, not only because we serve diverse communities, but because diversity is a service in itself.  I refer to this as the intrinsic value of diversity.  Our differences allow us to bring a variety of perspectives that enrich each other’s lives and the lives of the communities we serve, even if that community is completely homogenous.   We want all the best minds to contribute to scholarship, regardless of race, ability, nationality, gender, sexual orientation, age, socioeconomic status,  or geographic limitations.  Therefore, discussion of diversity must include, but move beyond, representation of the diverse communities we serve, and we must take a critical look at the structures of power that perpetuate exclusion.

As Alice Meadows points out in her recent article – Eight Ways to Tackle Diversity and Inclusion in Peer Review – it has become apparent that there is a serious lack of diversity and inclusion in publishing, scholarly communications and academia.  Her thoughtful piece shows how academia has constructed an exclusionary system that permeates through all facets of the scholarly communications landscape.

Librarianship reaches into all areas of academia, and over the last 2 decades has taken the lead in promoting a more open equitable environment for scholarly communications.  However, it is also a discipline that exemplifies that exclusionary system, despite the proliferation of diversity initiatives  over the last decade. The LIS profession generally regards itself as committed to diversity, equity and inclusion, as a safe space for persons of all abilities, sexual and gender orientations, and as anti-racist.   These narratives are welcome, and when they are translated into practices that actively recruit and foster the development of persons from underrepresented groups, they contribute to a more equitable scholarly environment.  However, a 2017 Ithaka S&R study of academic research libraries (Schonfield, R and Low, J “Inclusion, Diversity, and Equity:Members of the Association of Research Libraries Employee Demographics and Director Perspectives” (2017)) revealed the critical lack of diversity in the profession despite 20 years of diversity initiatives, beginning with the ALA Spectrum Scholarship in 1997.

However, these initiatives have not dismantled the exclusionary construct of the scholarly field or the profession.   One important issue that has been lacking from the diversity narrative is an interrogation of the structure of LIS as a profession.

Two structural issues that impact diversity in present-day librarianship are barriers to entry, and access to opportunities during LIS studies.  Prior to 1950 librarianship qualifications varied, including apprenticeship within a local library, summer training schools, and even and undergraduate degrees (see also Reports of the Iowa Library Commission 1901-1916 available at hathitrust.org).

This is no longer the case.  As a general rule, to become a librarian, an advanced degree is required, usually an MLS or its equivalent, or in more recent years, institutions have been increasingly willing to accept a subject-matter Masters degree. Within graduate programs, access to opportunities for meaningful experience are structured around concepts and expectations that align with North American, white, middle class cultural experiences.  While increasing numbers of entrants come to librarianship as a second career, the educational trajectory of most entrants is strikingly similar and coalesce around this same cultural experience.

People of color, people in lower socio-economic brackets which are disproportionately comprised of people of color, and people who are from the global south, again generally comprised of people of color, do not necessarily have this cultural experience.  Many of these persons may also have faced societal opportunity gaps and unequal access to resources from the earliest stages of formal education.  Moreover, persons within these groups are not one dimensional –  they may have other characteristics which inhibit access, such as disabilities, age, being a parent, and gender and sexual orientation.  When we consider the layering of all these facets, entry to the field of librarianship and space to thrive within it, becomes increasingly difficult to navigate for persons within these groups.

As a result, while narratives of diversity proliferate within LIS, access to the field is largely limited to a homogenous cultural and socio-economic trajectory.  If, as I argue, diversity has intrinsic value, why then should the qualification for professional librarianship not reflect diverse approaches?

I explore this question further in a following post.

Open Access Week 2018!

During the last week of October, Indiana University joins institutions around the world from countries as diverse as Senegal, Ghana, Austria, Lithuania, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, and dozens of US states to host a great variety of events for International Open Access Week. The groups include institutions as varied as university libraries, academic publishers, governmental groups, scientific organizations and even Wikimedia. As previously covered in this blog and elsewhere, Open Access is vitally-important goal that is supported by Indiana University Bloomington. Indeed, as shown by the recent announcement by Science Europe, IUB and its faculty was ahead of the curve in embracing and supporting an Open Access policy for all faculty members.

To review, most Open Access is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder. OA is entirely compatible with peer review, and all the major OA initiatives for scientific and scholarly literature insist on its importance. Just as authors of journal articles donate their labor, so do most journal editors and referees participating in peer review. (source)

Open Access means that knowledge is regarded as a public good and shared resource, and  authors use open access publishing to make the fruits of their research such as scholarly articles, datasets and source code, accessible  to the world for the sake of inquiry and knowledge without expectation of payment. Adopting such a policy reduces barriers to research and learning by making research available on the public internet to be downloaded and shared freely, making it possible for scholarship to be more widely read and cited than literature that appears in closed-access, licensed journal databases.

Open Access Week supports all of these goals–through a vast panoply of events and initiatives, OA Week seeks to raise awareness around Open Access and to encourage even more participation. No stranger to participation in OA Week, the Scholarly Communications Department, in collaboration with Indiana University Libraries, IU MoneySmarts, the Teaching and Learning Department and others in the Learning Commons are hosting a series of events for students and the public to learn all about Open Access, why you should care about it, and what you can do!

IUB’s Open Access Week events will include learning how to improve your Instagram and presentation game with CC0 images, reflecting on Wikipedia and its data, obtaining Open Access research, discussing course material costs, and learning more about open government information resources. Join us on the following dates –

  • October 22nd from 11am-1pm in Wells Library Learning Commons
  • October 23nd from 11am-1pm in Wells Library Learning Commons and
  • October 25th from 11am-12pm in Wells Library W138

The final highlight of the week from the Scholarly Communications department will be Sarah Hare’s presentation on how to start your own Open Access Journal. From the event page:

Anyone affiliated with Indiana University–students, staff, and faculty–can create an open access journal at no cost! This session will give an overview of the publishing platform, services, and support IU Libraries provides to those interested in starting a journal. The session will also provide information on flipping a closed journal to open access to those interested. Participants should bring any questions they have about journal publishing, open access, or their specific publication to the session.

Please RVSP here.

Journal of Academic Advising Publishes Inaugural Issue

The Scholarly Communication department is excited to share that the Journal of Academic Advising (JAA), a recently launched open access publication, has published its first issue. This journal focuses on fostering interdisciplinary communication and collaboration between academic advising professionals through the publishing of research relating to different aspects of advising. The publication of the first issue coincides with NACADA’s annual national conference for academic advisors, where JAA editorial staff will participate in two special sessions: “Expanding Scholarship in Advising Through a New Journal” and “So You Want to be a Scholar: Fostering a Research Environment.”

Cover of Journal of Academic Advising's first issue

 

JAA’s inaugural issue focuses on sustainability and innovation in academic advising, a theme that is highlighted in Cheryl Wanko’s “Advising for Sustainability: A Challenge.” Wanko, an English professor and the chair of the Committee for Advising Excellence at West Chester University, asks how universities and advising can “cultivate more sustainable behaviors and life perspectives to help alter our culture’s self-destructive course” (p. 7), and how daily advising practices can promote awareness of environmental sustainability efforts. Kay S. Hamada, Assistant Specialist and Academic Advisor at the University of Hawai’i Mānoa, also contributed to JAA’s first issue with an article entitled “A Conceptual Framework for Disruptive Innovation in Advising.” Hamada discusses the various ways in which advancements in technology and other services necessitate changing how advising practices are approached. She terms this innovation as being “disruptive” because it often alters the theories and frameworks that have helped create existing practices.

The Journal of Academic Advising asks important questions about the impact that advisers and advising can have, outside of their traditional roles. JAA is completely open access, providing an audience for the content that may extend beyond the field of advising. The Scholarly Communication Department looks forward to the ideas and perspectives that this journal will bring to the table in further issues.

The Scholarly Communication Department Welcomes Open Scholarship Diversity Resident

The Scholarly Communication Department welcomes our new Open Scholarship Diversity Resident this week – Willa Liburd Tavernier. Willa is the IU Libraries’ first Diversity Resident. She will be working with the Scholarly Communication Department and IU Press to advocate for and assess the impact of policies and practices that make research, educational materials, and data, openly accessible.

Willa Liburd Tavernier, IU Libraries Open Scholarship Resident

Willa’s current research interests include investigating the underlying theoretical basis for open scholarship, and critical information literacy.  Before joining IU, Willa worked as a student specialist at the University of Iowa conducting bibliographic analysis of open access funded research and assisting with administration of the institutional repository.

Willa earned her MLIS from the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Iowa together with a Graduate Certificate in College Teaching.  She also holds a Master of Laws from American University Washington College of Law, a Legal Education Certificate from Norman Manley Law School and a Bachelor of Laws from the University of the West Indies at Cave Hill.

Please join us in welcoming Willa to the IU Libraries!

The Scholarly Communication Department Welcomes Two New Graduate Students

Join us in welcoming two new graduate student assistants to the Scholarly Communication Department! We are thrilled to have Allison Nolan and Brian Watson join our team. Both Allison and Brian are new master’s students in the Information and Library Science (ILS) Program in the School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering.

allison nolan photo

Allison Nolan received her Bachelor of Arts in English and Humanities from Valparaiso University in 2017. She worked for three years in the Valparaiso University Christopher Center library as the Marketing Student Assistant. In addition to working with the IU Library Scholarly Communications Department, she is also the Center Supervisor for the Teter residence hall library.

brian watson photo

Brian Watson is a historian of sexuality and the book. After winning several awards for his MA thesis, he expanded it into a full-length monograph which was featured on Conan O’Brien and elsewhere. He is a moderator for the world’s largest academic history forum, AskHistorians, and an editor and host of its podcast. He plans to focus on the interactions of humanities, archives and the digital world throughout his time at IU. He is also currently working on his next book, which focuses on the historiography of sexuality research.

We look forward to working with Allison and Brian. We can’t wait to see what they accomplish during their time at IU!

Indexing Your Journal

In order to be found by other scholars and considered legitimate, your journal should be discoverable and visible. Journal indexing is an excellent way to increase discoverability, allowing you to achieve higher rates of readership and citation. Indexing enables your journal to reach a wider audience and become a part of trusted academic databases used frequently by researchers in all disciplines.

Once your journal is indexed in a database, important metadata about your publication (and sometimes the full text of your journal’s articles)  will be available (and searchable) by all of the database’s users. Additionally, as potential authors assess the visibility and impact of your journal, they’ll find that it is widely indexed and discoverable by audiences they are trying to reach. For example, below is a screenshot of indexing coverage from Ulrichs, a database with information about journals and other serials. Ulrichs is a common tool promoted for faculty and graduate students looking for publication venues.  

Screenshot of Abstracting and Indexing in Ulrichs

How do you go about getting indexed by these databases and/ or directories? We have provided a step-by-step Guide to Applying for Journal Indexing to help you through this process! The guide includes a list of  highly used databases that new journals should consider being indexed in. , These include UlrichsWeb, EBSCO, and ProQuest. For each database, we list a quick summary of the database’s scope, the basic set of requirements necessary to be indexed, and links to the necessary forms to start the index application process.

Logo for Directory of Open Access Journals

Our department also provides in-depth  assistance for journals in our program interested in being indexed in  the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). DOAJ is an online directory that indexes open access, peer-reviewed journals, and is considered to be one of the best indicators of high quality for open access content. Authors often go to DOAJ to confirm that an open access publication is not predatory, for example. The Journal Application Form for indexing within DOAJ is detailed , but we have compiled a template that will help you answer each of these questions. Our DOAJ Application Template walks editors through each question, providing default answers for questions that apply to all IU Open Journals, as well as locations for questions you may not be sure about.

If you have any concerns or questions about indexing your journal, contact us at iusw@indiana.edu. We’re happy to meet one-on-one with editorial teams interested in indexing!

Managing Research Identity: ORCID

Indiana University Libraries are pleased to announce that we have joined ORCID – a nonprofit organization that provides an open, transparent solution for researcher identity management. IU faculty, staff, and students can use ORCID to create an ORCID iD – a 16-digit number that uniquely identifies a researcher. This iD is then linked to an individual’s research output. With the help of ORCID iDs, IU faculty and staff can more easily receive credit and recognition for their work, reduce time spent on reporting and administrative requirements, and continually and automatically update their dossiers by incorporating services such as CrossRef and DataCite. 

An ORCID iD helps you easily and reliably link your unique identity with your contributions. You can maintain all of your key information in one place, and you control your own privacy settings. ORCID allows you to link with other identifier systems, including those maintained by funders and publishers, and exchange data freely with those research information systems. For example, authors can often log in to journal submission systems using their ORCID iDs, sparing them from continually re-entering affiliation and contact information. Furthermore, when an article is subsequently published, a citation and link automatically appear in that author’s ORCID profile, enabling easy access to other publications for interested readers.

Registration is free and fast for IU researchers and scholars. ORCID is integrated with IU CAS Login, which enables users to utilize their IU login information to automatically create an account affiliated with Indiana University. When you Sign Up for your free ORCID iD, select “Institutional account” in order to login with your IU credentials.

If you have any questions about creating or using an ORCID iD, please contact us at iusw@indiana.edu.

The Great American Read

This post was authored by Scholarly Communication Department student assistant Jenny Hoops and Scholars Commons Librarian Alyssa Denneler.

Source: https://www.pbs.org/the-great-american-read/resources/downloads/

The Great American Read is an eight-part televised series on PBS that celebrates the American novel. The series is the centerpiece of a digital, educational and community outreach campaign, designed to get the country reading and passionately talking about books. With the help of a national survey, PBS has selected 100 of America’s “most-loved novels”. These novels range widely in terms of time period, setting, and tone, but all have captured the interest of the public and crafted American literary culture.

Libraries are a great a way to access these 100 books- and not just through the traditional check-out process. About one-fifth of these books are public domain, meaning that they are out of copyright, and thus can be accessed digitally completely free. Public domain also ensures users the right to reuse, adapt, or transform these works without restriction, encouraging meaningful engagement with the material for years to come.  IU’s HathiTrust is an excellent resource for these public domain books. Classics such as Frankenstein, Pride and Prejudice, and The Call of the Wild, to name only a few, are available in a high quality, accessible format. Countless books beyond those in the Great American Read’s Top 100 are in the public domain, and IU librarians are always ready to help you figure out which books are out of copyright and free for you to find and use.

Take some time this fall to re-read an old favorite, or pick up a new classic recommended by others! Before the voting ends in October, check out the Great American Read display in the Wells Library Scholars’ Commons, on the bookshelf in front of Hazelbaker hall. All of the available books for this initiative have been collected there so you can more easily find your next great read. They’re all available for check out as well, if you feel compelled to take one home with you. Finally, you can still vote online for your favorite.

Curious about Open Access and the public domain? Our Scholarly Communication department is leading a workshop this fall on Starting an Open Access Journal, where you can learn more about academic publishing in a new way.