The Importance of Undergraduate Student Research at IU

This semester I had the privilege of teaching “Academic Editing and Publishing,” a one-credit hour course for the Indiana University Journal of Undergraduate Research (IUJUR) student editorial board. I co-taught the course with a current undergraduate student and the former editor-in-chief of IUJUR, Sonali Mali. The purpose of the course was twofold: to give students a practical skillset for publishing a multidisciplinary undergraduate scholarly journal at Indiana University while also informing students of larger conceptual academic publishing issues.

Striking a balance between practical fundamentals—for example, learning the ins and outs of our publishing platform and evaluating submissions using IUJUR-specific rubrics—with larger concepts was sometimes challenging. Overall, I think that students appreciated the authentic learning experiences that resulted from using an active journal as a tangible example throughout the course.

I learned a lot about myself as an instructor and the importance of librarian perspectives in undergraduate publishing education. Library publishers are experts in ethical publishing practices, open access funding, and various peer review models. Students were most passionate when we discussed the cost of information, open access publishing, and new publishing innovations, including post-publication peer review, data publishing, and including 3D and media in traditional journal publishing. I was excited to talk about these developments in the context of the work that IU Libraries is pursuing and several of the case studies we discussed in class were pulled from work that the Office of Scholarly Publishing (OSP) and IU Press is currently engaged in. 

The Importance of Undergraduate Research

Throughout the course, I learned about the importance of undergraduate research and the integral role that IUJUR editors play as ambassadors for undergraduate research at Indiana University. I kicked off the first session of our course with asking students to articulate why undergraduate research was important. Students shared that IUJUR gave IU students a voice and presence on a research-intensive campus. They explained that an institutional commitment to undergraduate research provided space for all students to ask their own research questions and share their perspectives. They also noted that IUJUR gives student editors and authors access to faculty advisors, tangible career preparation, and opportunities to refine their voice and collaboration skills. Here were a few of my favorite responses from this activity:
undergrad research primes a generation of future researchers

prepares students for grad school and beyond

gives students the ability to take a proactive role in shaping the research climate on campus

These responses align with the growing body of literature that discusses how impactful and effective undergraduate research is. The Council on Undergraduate Research supports institutions of all sizes and missions that provide some kind of undergraduate research opportunity for faculty and students to collaborate on. They have a variety of publications, many of which are freely available to access. Some of the benefits of intensive undergraduate research that CUR has identified include:

Enhances student learning through mentoring relationships with faculty

Increases retention

Increases enrollment in graduate education and provides effective career preparation

Develops critical thinking, creativity, problem solving and intellectual independence

Develops an understanding of research methodology

Promotes an innovation-oriented culture

Similarly, undergraduate research has been called a “high-impact practice” or HIP. George Kuh wrote a landmark paper for the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU) on high-impact educational practices in 2008. When researching why intensive undergraduate research, service learning, learning communities, and other learning opportunities were particularly effective, he found several similarities between HIPs (pgs. 14-17), including:

An extensive investment from students

Interaction and relationship building between peers and with faculty to solve “substantive” or real-world problems

Exposure to diverse perspectives and viewpoints

Consistent feedback to foster improvement and growth 

Kuh’s list applies to the intensive work that IUJUR authors and editors do to publish a multidisciplinary journal regularly.

Throughout the course I always tried to come back to our first session and the reasons that students identified for why undergraduate research is important. I can now articulate that the product–the final research output that others can read and cite–is only a piece of the puzzle. The process that IUJUR student editors and authors go through is just as fundamental. The process is where learning takes place. It’s where we train future researchers, scholars, and citizens to think critically about access to research and how we evaluate scholarship. It’s where we build relationships with students that transform their future career paths and broaden and enhance their existing interests. I am thankful to play a small part in the IUJUR student editors’ process and be part of a campus that prioritizes undergraduate research.

Additional resources:

Additional reading on undergraduate research journals:

  • Dawson, D. D., & Marken, L. (2017). Undergraduate Research Journals: Benefits and Good Practices of Involving Students in Content Creation and Other Scholarly Communication Activities. WILU 2017 Conference, University of Alberta. https://ecommons.usask.ca/handle/10388/7899
  • Riehle, C. F. (2014). Collaborators in Course Design: A Librarian and Publisher at the Intersection of Information Literacy and Scholarly Communication. In 2014 LOEX Conference Proceedings. http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/lib_fsdocs/119/
  • Weiner, S., & Watkinson, C. (2014). What do students learn from participation in an undergraduate research journal? Results of an assessment. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 2(2). http://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.1125

Welcome Olivia Wikle and Alex Moon to our staff

We are happy to announce that two interns — Olivia Wikle and Alex Moon — will be joining our staff for the Spring 2018 semester.

Olivia WilkeOlivia has a background in digital humanities,
with a special interest in the intersection of literature and music in late eighteenth-century Britain. She will contribute to many of the different pieces that comprise the Scholarly Communication Department’s digital scholarship and publishing programs. Olivia received her M.A. in Musicology from The Ohio State University in 2016 and will complete her Master of Library Science with a specialization in Digital Humanities at Indiana University in May 2018. Olivia also serves as Treasurer of the American Library Association Student Chapter at IU.

Alex Moon headshot

Alex Moon will employ his considerable expertise and a diverse skillset to improve our assessment and analytics efforts. He is a second year masters student in the Higher Education and Student Affairs program at the IU School Education. Alex  has a background in English literature and dance, and is looking forward to pursuing an additional masters degree in Library and Information Science next year.

We are fortunate to have them aboard. Look for posts later in the semester reporting on their contributions to the work of the Department. Please contact us by email (iusw at indiana dot edu) if you are interested in a future internship with Scholarly Communication.

 

Hiring a Scholarly Communication Assistant

We are looking for an additional part-time assistant to join our dynamic and expanding team in Wells Library. To apply, please send Scholarly Communication Librarian, Sarah Hare (scrissin at indiana dot edu), your resume and a cover letter outlining your interest in this position.

Details of the Position

Description: Assist the Scholarly Communication department with various projects, including editing and creating library website pages, designing instructional materials, writing blog posts, and assisting the department with other outreach efforts related to open scholarship, copyright, and digital publishing.

Other duties may include digitizing material, writing documentation for the department’s digital publishing program, and securing copyright permissions from authors and publishers in order to deposit materials in the IUScholarWorks institutional repository.

Qualifications: Required: Excellent organizational and communication skills, attention to detail, and the ability to work independently. Currently enrolled as an IU student. Preferred: Experience with managing projects, creating documentation, and designing instructional and marketing material. Some interest or working knowledge in scholarly communication issues, digital publishing, or instruction is desirable but not necessary.

Classification/Pay Rate: Library Assistant ($10.15)
Hours Per Week: 8-10;
Evening/Weekends Required: No;
Open to Students Only: Yes

Our Year in Review

Last December, the Scholarly Communication Department carved time out of our annual retreat to reflect on our successes from 2017 and our goals for the coming year.

Greatest Accomplishments of 2017

Scholarly Communication Major Goals for 2018

  • Complete our implementation of the Open Access Policy to ensure that every IUB faculty member is able to effortlessly make open versions of their journal articles available. You can learn more about our implementation here.
  • Upgrade all the journals we host to the newest version of our publishing software, enabling more streamlined editorial processes and improved user interfaces.
  • Improve and expand website content to better meet user needs – including the development of video tutorials to demonstrate use of our services.
  • Work in collaboration with the OVPR to provide support for researchers publishing in Gold Open Access journals, which often charge article processing fees to authors.
  • Provide more robust support for campus’ data publishing needs
  • Continue to publish weekly blog posts and expand our engagement with the IU research community on social media platforms – starting in 2018 we are tweeting from @iulibraries
  • In partnership with UITS and the eText program, raise awareness about how course material costs affect students and encourage the adoption of affordable course materials

Frequently Asked Questions About the IUB Open Access Implementation

This FAQ is supplemental to the official Open Access Policy FAQ, available here

What do I need to do to comply with the IUB Open Access Policy?

  • Publish in an open access journal OR
  • Agree to archive an open access version of the article OR
  • Opt out of the policy

What kinds of publications are subject to the policy?

The policy only applies to scholarly journal articles authored by IU Bloomington faculty, published after February 21st, 2017.

I read that I can comply while completing my annual report. How can I do this?

Some faculty might not be able to publish in an OA journal. If that’s the case, you simply need to fill out your DMAI (annual report) as you would every year. We will check to see which version(s) you can create open access and then follow up with you to deposit that version. If you choose, you may opt out in the reporting system by selecting the opt out box for your article.

What will happen in the reporting system if I DO NOT opt out?

The Libraries will run a report in the reporting system that generates a dataset with citation information for articles subject to the open access policy. If a faculty member has not opted out, we will check the publisher’s self archiving policy. If the publishing agreement allows, we will deposit a PDF of the article in IUSW Open and send the faculty member a confirmation email. If the publishing agreement requires another version of the article or does not allow self archiving, we will be in touch by email with next steps.

What will happen in the reporting system if I DO opt out?

The Libraries will run a report in the reporting system that generates a dataset with citation information for articles subject to the open access policy. If a faculty member has opted out, we will generate a letter waiving the University’s license to the article. This article will be sent to the author by email.

What about my existing publishing agreements? How will I know if I need to opt out?

If you already know that you need to opt out for an article, you may do so while completing your annual report or using IUSW Open. Otherwise, we will do the rights checking for you and get in touch if you have an incompatible publishing agreement or if we cannot access your publishing agreement.

Do I need to manage all of my publishing contracts, waivers, and potential addenda myself?

Not by yourself. While we do recommend that faculty keep records of documents signed in the publishing process, the Libraries will keep track of the agreements we receive from faculty and publishers.

Can I apply a blanket opt out to all of my articles?

Blanket opt-outs are not possible. The BFC policy states that faculty must opt out for each article subject to the policy. If you wish to opt out for all of your articles, the easiest way to do so is to check the opt out box for the articles as you enter them in DMAI.

What if I make the wrong choice or need to opt out later?

The archival status of an article subject to the policy can be changed at any time and our systems accommodate this. Contact us at iusw@indiana.edu to make the change.

Who can I contact with questions?

You can contact us by email at iusw@indiana.edu or reach out to your liaison librarian. The openscholarship.indiana.edu website will connect you to open access guidance and instructions for depositing in IUSW Open. If you have further questions, the policy FAQ may also be helpful.

 

Copyright and Data Curation

Digital technologies have engendered new research methodologies that can render mass collections or assemblages of things as data and analyze them as such. Things such as images, the millions of books on Google Books, or commercial databases of scholarly research articles that were originally created to be viewed or read can now be mined for data, coded, and analyzed statistically.

These new technologies and research methods, like many technologies before them, raise concomitant copyright issues and questions. In addition, the advent of open data policies from the U.S. government, foundations, and other grant funders have also raised questions from researchers about who owns data; what, if any legal protections exist for data; and how other researchers may use such data? These questions arise throughout the life cycle of data, from its creation, to archiving it, and its possible licensing for use by other researchers.

Data and its curation clearly raise other legal issues as well, including privacy, cybersecurity, trade secrets, and patent law. In the context of copyright law, data implicates issues about the subject matter and ownership of copyright, or what is copyrightable, and who owns the copyright in copyrightable intellectual property.

Data v. Databases

By data, I mean the raw content of assembled, collected, or generated stuff to be subjected to statistical analysis and interpretation. Illustrations or representations of the analyzed data in tables, charts or graphs, present related but separate copyright issues.

By databases, I am referring to the organization of the data, its relationship to different data elements, or how the data is organized in a structured set of data, typically stored in a computer, and made accessible and manipulable by means of software applications.

Copyrightability of Data and Databases

U.S. copyright has very little to say, at least not directly, about either data or databases. Instead, copyright law provides a framework for establishing the subject matter of copyright – or what is copyrightable – and who owns copyrightable intellectual property once it has been created. Copyright law then provides certain protections for that copyrightable intellectual property in the form of specifically enumerated exclusive rights granted to copyright owners.

Under the law, copyright protection is granted to “…original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression…” A lot of data will not be copyrightable because it does not meet the first requirement for copyright protection, namely, originality. While many sources of data, such as images or texts in a database, are of course copyrightable, the data generated from those sources, as well as other data sets generally, does not constitute an “original work of authorship,” as described by the Copyright Act and litigated in numerous cases. This might not make sense to a lot of researchers: if a researcher designs an experiment or study, runs experiments or conducts surveys, collects and compiles the data, isn’t that original, and aren’t they the author of it? Yes, in a certain sense, but not in the sense that is important for copyright. Copyright is intended to incentivize the publication and distribution of creative works. Facts and data aren’t considered original works of authorship because they are not “created” so much as they are “engendered” by or are a result of a researcher’s methods. They are discovered and compiled, and copyright does not reward that effort.

Moreover, data is typically factual or informational, and U.S. copyright does not protect facts or information. It is not possible to copyright facts, ideas, procedures, processes, methods, systems, concepts, formulas, algorithms, principles or discoveries, although such things might be protectable by patent law.

Similarly, while U.S. copyright law does protect compilations, Congress has not seen fit to extend copyright protection to databases themselves. There could nevertheless be a thin layer of copyright protection in a database, premised on choices regarding what data to include in the database, the organization of the data, or defining the relationships between different data elements. Such creative decisions potentially meet the requirements for copyrightability and copyright protection.

Ownership and Protection of Data and Databases

Because of the varying degrees of copyrightability of databases and data content, and because copyright only protects copyrightable works, different strategies are required to manage the ownership and protection of data and databases. Copyright can govern the use of databases and some data content (that is “an original work of authorship”), but other mechanisms must be relied on to regulate access to and the use of data and databases, typically on the basis of access controls by means of authentication, and contracts and licensing agreements to restrict the extraction and reuse of the data, or other contents of a database.

Data Curation and Licensing

Ideally, repository collections of data will provide information regarding the terms of use for the database and its data content. The Open Data Commons group (http://opendatacommons.org) has developed three standard licenses based on copyright and contract principles. They are:
1. Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL): This dedicates the database and its content to the public domain, free for everyone to use as they see fit.
2. Attribution License (ODC-By): Users are free to use the database and its content in new and different ways, provided they provide attribution to the source of the data and/or the database.
3. Open Database License (ODC-ODbL): ODbL stipulates that any subsequent use of the database must provide attribution, an unrestricted version of the new product must always be accessible, and any new products made using ODbL material must be distributed using the same terms. It is the most restrictive of all ODC licenses.

New Issue of International Journal of Designs for Learning (IJDL) Published

This post was authored by Scholarly Communication Department graduate assistant Jenny Hoops. 

The International Journal of Designs for Learning (IJDL) has published its second issue of 2017, continuing a long tradition of working with IU Libraries and IU Press in order to provide open access to a wide variety of content. IJDL has been publishing since 2010, but as a result of the collaboration between the Office of Scholarly Publishing and the journal’s team of editors, several key changes have improved the journal’s online presence. The journal has recently minted DOIs for their most recent articles as well as all the articles in their archive, ensuring easier discovery and identification of the journal’s content.

IJDL is dedicated to providing publishing opportunities for designers from all disciplines, recording various methodologies, debates, and materials dealing with the design process in an open access format. The journal aims to reach a broad audience of designers at every level of education, from complete novices and students to experienced teachers and designers. As a publication of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, the improvement of education through technology remains a constant focus of the scholarship of the International Journal of Designs for Learning.

Articles from the newest issue such as “Designing Authentic and Engaging Personas for Open Education Resources Designers” highlight IJDL’s dedication to open scholarship and learning. This article helps inform readers on how to craft engaging, authentic, and useful personas for designers open education resources. Another article, “Confessions of Novice Designers and Their Instructor”, examines the multidisciplinary nature of design, utilizing a graduate-level message design course as a compelling case study. Students of the course completed small, client-based design projects as instructors worked to give them the most effective feedback possible, ultimately creating an honest and interesting dialogue for the reader to examine. This issue also features works from the Student Design Case SLAM, the results of an intensive one day workshop for graduate students at the 2016 Association for Educational Communications and Technology Convention in Las Vegas. These students worked to create a publishable design casing, acting as writer, designer, and editor for each other’s projects.

The most recent issue of IJDL is the journal’s eighth volume and this year’s final issue. The International Journal of Designs for Learning publishes semi-annually and is available in the Directory of Open Access Journals.

Open Scholarship for All: Resources for Students, Faculty, and Staff

The IU Libraries support open scholarship for students, faculty, and staff across the Bloomington campus (and on other campuses as well). Read on to learn more about which services are available to you.

Undergraduate students

Graduate Students

  • IUScholarWorks is available as a resource to graduate students who wish to share their research as long as they have authorization from their sponsoring department. Any faculty member in the department can provide authorization.
  • Graduate students who are writing theses and dissertations do not need authorization to deposit in IUScholarWorks. Some units require a copy of graduate student theses and dissertations to be made available in IUScholarWorks. To make your thesis or dissertation available, use this submission form.
  • IU Open Journals support graduate student publications and students are encouraged to contact us if they are interested in starting a journal. Examples of student-managed IU Open Journals publications include:
    • New Views on Gender – research and creative work (poetry, short stories, photography, artwork, etc.) that deals with issues of gender and sexuality
    • Indiana University South Bend Graduate Research Journal – a multidisciplinary journal specifically for graduate students. The goal of the Journal is to publish the best research and/or critical graduate work produced at IU South Bend every year.
  • Research Data Services are available to graduate students at any level who need support planning, organizing, sharing, and publishing research data. For students applying for federal agency funding and required to provide a data management plan (DMP), a DMP review service is available.

Faculty

  • IUScholarWorks is available as a resource to faculty who wish to share their research. Examples of research output faculty share in IUScholarWorks include:
    • Submitted manuscripts (as sent to journals for peer-review)
    • Accepted versions (author’s final peer-reviewed drafts)
    • Published versions (publisher-created files)
    • Supplementary files, including streaming multimedia or datasets of any size
    • Gray literature (conference papers, working drafts, primary evidence)
    • Negative results or work that will not be finished
  • Our CV Service is available to faculty who would like all of the publications on their CV to be systematically deposited into the IUScholarWorks repository.
  • Coming soon, IUScholarWorks Open will be made available to all IU Bloomington faculty publishing work subject to the IU Bloomington Open Access Policy. For more information on the policy, visit our new Open Scholarship site.
  • The Office of Scholarly Publishing Journals provides publishing services to a select group of faculty-run journals at IU Bloomington. Examples include:
  • Research Data Services are available to faculty who need support planning, organizing, sharing, and publishing research data. For faculty applying for federal agency funding and required to provide a data management plan (DMP), a DMP review service is available.

Staff

  • IUScholarWorks is available as a resource to staff who wish to share their research.
  • IU Open Journals support staff publications and staff members are encouraged to contact us if they are interested in starting a journal.
  • Research Data Services are available to staff who need support planning, organizing, sharing, and publishing research data. For staff applying for federal agency funding and required to provide a data management plan (DMP), a DMP review service is available.

Other IU Campuses

 

If you have questions about whether you are eligible for a service or would like to learn more contact us at iusw@indiana.edu

Easily transmit data, video, and large files to IUScholarWorks

If you produce large datasets, create video or images, develop software or custom virtual machines, or rely on large packages of files and data in your research, we are pleased to introduce you to a new wiki-based widget for transmitting your work to our repository team.

screen shot of widget
URL: https://wiki.dlib.indiana.edu/x/swRNHw

With true drag and drop functionality, the widget allows users to transmit files of almost any size, from a 500 MB .mp4 video to a 10+ GB bundled virtual machine. All material dropped on the window or uploaded by browsing to a file on your machine will be synced to a dedicated Box folder owned by the Scholarly Communications Department. From there, our staff can ensure your material is placed in the appropriate preservation environment and mapped correctly to one or more IUScholarWorks records.

The tool gives IU researchers an accessible and straightforward method for transmitting material for deposit. It will be useful for the deposit of big datasets as well as files that merely exceed the 25-50 MB limit imposed on email attachments. Even for those who prefer to self-submit their own datasets, the simplicity of the tool makes the process of pushing data files to the Scholarly Data Archive less demanding. This is especially true if you are dealing with transmitting multiple small files. Compressing and/or packaging them as a zip or tar file will enable a smoother upload.

For any questions about using this tool or to let us know what you’ve uploaded, contact us at iusw @ indiana (dot) edu.

A Recap of Open Access Week 2017

This is the tenth year Open Access Week has been celebrated. Each year, we celebrate a different piece of Open Access and its importance. For 2017, the emphasis was on “Open in Order to…” and the tangible benefits that scholars and institutions reap when research is openly available. The Open Access Week site lists several responses for the “Open in Order to…” prompt including “increase access to knowledge,” “facilitate collaboration,” and “raise your research visibility.”

At IU Libraries, we facilitated and promoted several programs that aligned with this year’s emphasis on the tangible results of OA. Staff from the Scholarly Communication Department, Teaching and Learning, Indiana University Press, the Institute for Digital Arts and Humanities (IDAH), and the Mathers Museum of World Cultures created and led these programs.

The “What Does Google Tell the World About You?” session focused on how openness can impact online presence and increase discoverability.  Our workshop entitled “Predatory Publishers, Open Scholarship, and Your Research” provided an overview of predatory publishing practices and strategies for finding a reputable publisher. “How Does Scholarly Peer-Review for Publication Work? An Introduction for Journals and Books” gave participants a practical, behind-the-scenes look at scholarly peer-review for journals as well as books. Additionally, as an extension of OA week, an info-share and group consultation on the new Open Access Digital Monograph Publishing Program will happen this Tuesday, 10/31. The program supports the publication of open-access monographs in the humanities and humanistic social sciences with a $15,000 subvention.

Finally, Indiana University Press made five IU faculty-authored books published freely available on the IUScholarworks platform from October 20 through October 27. The titles included Dealing with Dictators by Lazlo Borhi, Folk Art and Aging by Jon Kay, Abidjan USA by Daniel Reed, The Accompaniment in “Unaccompanied” Bach by Stanley Ritchie, and Guide to the Solo Horn Repertoire by Richard Seraphinoff.

OA week display case with open press books
The Open Access Week Display Case In Wells Lobby, Featuring some of the IU Press books made openly available 10/20-10/27

The “opening up” of these titles coincided with the annual IU Press Authors Event, which celebrates IUB faculty that have published a monograph in the last year. Authors were congratulated by Dean Walters, Provost Robel, and Vice Provost Van Kooten.

books publishing by IU faculty
A selection of the monographs published by IU faculty in the last year

Our focus for Open Access Week 2017 was to highlight the tangible, practical side of Open Access. Open Access increases impact, provides content to all, and is compatible with reputable and rigorous publishing. Our events this year dispelled common OA myths while highlighting these truths and emphasizing OA’s impact on the IU community specifically.